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Perceived Usefulness and Trust towards Consumer Behaviors: A Perspective of Consumer Online Shopping

Author(s):Lim Yi Jin --- Abdullah Bin Osman --- Mohd Suberi Bin AB.Halim 
Journal: Journal of Asian Scientific Research
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 541-546
In this globalization era, the Internet has become an important tool for web browsing, social networking and even making online purchases. In Malaysia, few studies have examined the influence of perceived usefulness and trust on the online shopping behavior of consumers. Thus, the current study intends to investigate whether perceived usefulness and trust influence the online shopping behavior of consumers in northern Malaysia which comprises Kedah, Perlis, Penang and Perak. The relationship of the perceived usefulness and trust and the online shopping behaviors of the consumers will also be determined in this study. Quantitative research will be conducted by distributing questionnaires to 600 Internet users from different age groups, genders and backgrounds. Perceived usefulness and trust are predicted to influence the online shopping behaviors of consumers in northern Malaysia since these two factors were proven to influence the online shopping behavior of other developing countries such as China. The information obtained from this study will facilitate online retailers and shoppers? understanding of the different perspectives of both parties regarding the effects of perceived usefulness and trust on online shopping behavior. This study can be a useful guideline for researches to improve their studies. 

Simulation of Reinforced Concrete Blast Wall Subjected To Air Blast Loading

Author(s):Mohammed Alias Yusof --- Rafika Norhidayu Rosdi --- Norazman Mohamad Nor --- Ariffin Ismail --- Muhammad Azani Yahya --- Ng Choy Peng 
Journal: Journal of Asian Scientific Research
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 522-533
This research investigates the behavior of reinforced concrete blast wall subjected to air blast loading.  In this study a reinforced concrete blast wall was designed to resist a blast load for the capacity of 5 kg of TNT at a distance of 2 meter. The thickness of the blast wall is 250mm and the height is 4500 mm. AUTODYN 3D hydrocode software was used to simulate the behavior of the reinforced concrete blast wall under air blast loading. A total of four different charge weight of TNT,  which represents a minimum  loading capacity of person or vehicle to carry an explosive was simulated at a stand-off distance of 2 meter from the blast wall. This explosive capacity representative bombs are hand carried bomb by  personnel with a loading capacity of 5 kg,  Motorcycle 50 kg,  car  400kg and also van with the capacity of 1500 kg of TNT explosive. The simulation results show  that the blast wall sustained the blast load up to 5kg and  had minor damage  on the wall when subjected to 50 kg of TNT charge weight, However, the blast wall  failed when subjected to 400 kg and 1500kg  of TNT charge weight at a stand-off distance of 2 meter. The results show that the simulation results using  AUTODYN 3D simulation software is comparable with the design data.

Estimating the Spectral Power Density Function of Non-Gaussian Second Order Autoregressive Model

Author(s):Abdul-Majeed H. Al-Nassir --- Mohammed Qadoury Abed --- Wadhah S. Ibraheem 
Journal: Journal of Asian Scientific Research
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 513-521
This research focuses on estimation of the spectrum and the spectral power density function of non-Gaussian second order  autoregressive model AR(2) through performing simulation?s experiments to calculate the values of power spectral density function (PSD) for different sample sizes and various frequencies.The random errors for the used model follow Non-Gaussian distribution (discrete, and continuous), and also the comparison between simulation results is made by using the criteria of Mean Square Error (MSE) and Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE).The main conclusions of the research are: There is no essential differences appeared for the spectrum values, or spectral power density function, and mean square errors and mean absolute percentage errors between discrete and continuous distributions for all frequencies.In case of Cauchy distribution, whenever the sample size increases the value of p(w) and f(w) goes up, while the value of MSE, MAPE decreases.

Steepness of the Lateral Distribution Function of Secondary Hadrons in Extensive Air Showers

Author(s):M. Roshan Nasab --- G. Rastegarzadeh 
Journal: Journal of Asian Scientific Research
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 504-512
The influence of high and low energy hadronic interaction models on hadrons lateral distribution of cosmic ray air showers for primary energies 1017-1019eV is explored. By using CORSIKA simulation code hadrons lateral distribution and also steepness of the hadron lateral distribution function is studied. We have shown η (the steepness of the lateral distribution) is increases with increasing primary energy and is decreases with increasing primary mass. We have investigated hadrons lateral distribution and their dependence on the primary energy and mass of cosmic ray induced air showers. η can be directly related to the shower maximum (Xmax) and also it can suitable parameters for resolution of composition mass of cosmic ray.

Molecular Characterization of Some Iraqi Date Palm Cultivars Using Rapd and Issr Markers

Author(s):Hussam S.M. Khierallah --- Sarah K. I. Al-Sammarraie --- Haider I. Mohammed
Journal: Journal of Asian Scientific Research
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 490-503
Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is an important fruit tree in Iraq. Assessment of genetic relationships among date palm cultivars is of major importance for characterization of date palm germplasm, breeding programs, and conservation purposes. Genetic polymorphism in 17 well known date palm cultivars in Iraqi representing ten female and seven male cultivars was assessed using 30 RAPD universal primers and 12 ISSR primers. Results revealed that 86 polymorphic bands were detected by RAPD analysis while 85 bands were observed when ISSRs were used. Correlation fit with a 0.87 r matrix correlation value was observed between RAPD and ISSR data. Therefore, a combined data analysis of both markers was done to assess phylogenetic relationships among cultivars. A total of 2530 scorable bands were generated from both RAPD and ISSR primers with an average of 72.29 fragments per primer. RAPD and ISSR primers were annealed with 240 loci across all cultivar genomes with an  average of 6.86 loci per primer. Among these loci scored, 171 loci (71.25%) were polymorphic for at least one of the cultivars with an average of 4.89 polymorphic bands per primer. Genetic distances were estimated using Jaccard?s genetic similarity index and were ranged from 0.422 between the two males ?Risasy? and ?Ghanami Akhhder? to 0.789 between ?Hilawi? and ?Ghanami Ahmer? according to ISSR markers. Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean UPGMA ordered date palm cultivars into two main clusters independently of their origin and sex. Moreover, all primer combinations contributed to the discrimination of date palm cultivars, suggesting the efficiency of RAPD and ISSR methods in assessing genetic diversity in Iraqi date palm germplasm.

Effect of Government Mediated Access Pricing on Prices of Targeted Drugs in The Philippines

Author(s):Jesus N. Sarol, Jr. 
Journal: Journal of Asian Scientific Research
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 473-489
Introduction  The Philippines implemented the Cheaper Medicines Act of 2008 to improve access to quality drugs.  Thereafter, the government placed 5 drugs under maximum drug retail pricing (MDRP) and influenced pharmaceutical companies to reduce by half prices of 16 branded drugs, referred to as drugs under government-mediated access prices (GMAP).  The effect of GMAP on prices of drugs carrying similar molecules has not been well-studied.   This study compared the price of selected drug molecules directly affected by the MDRP/GMAP policies in 2009 and 2011.    MethodsThe study used data obtained from independent surveys conducted by IMS Health Philippines in 2009 and 2011 using a stratified sample of 600 drug stores each.  Prices of the following categories of stock keeping units (SKUs) for 11 drug molecules placed under MDRP/GMAP listing were obtained:  1) innovator brand; 2) competitor brand; and 3) cheapest generic counterpart available.  Price data was obtained using a mystery shopper approach.  Differences in mean and median drug prices between 2009 and 2011 for each drug were calculated.  ResultsBeing MDRP/GMAP reference drugs, there were expected compulsory reductions in mean prices of 10 of 11 innovator brands.  Reduction of mean prices of competitor drugs occurred on a relatively smaller scale.  Mean prices in 2011 of competitor drugs tended to settle near the GMAP reference levels.  Mean prices of the cheapest generic drugs all went down significantly.  ConclusionGovernment-mediated pricing could be an effective means of reducing prices of targeted drugs in similar fashion as reference pricing.   

Capacitated Clustering and Collection of Solid Waste in Kwadaso Estate, Kumasi

Author(s):D. Otoo --- S. K. Amponsah --- C. Sebil 
Journal: Journal of Asian Scientific Research
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 460-472
The collection, transport and disposal of solid waste, which is a highly visible and important municipal service, involves a large expenditure but receives, scant attention. This problem is even more crucial for large cities in developing countries due to the hot weather. Solid waste management is a very pertinent issue facing municipal and local authorities in Ghana. Due to the population growth and the changing lifestyles of Ghanaians, the amounts of waste generated has increased drastically over the years. This paper presents cluster-first-route-second heuristic method to generate feasible solution to an extended Capacitated Arc Routing Problem (CARP) in Kwadaso, a suburb of Kumasi, Ghana. The proposed method was compared with existing schedules with respect to cost and distance travelled. The adoption of the proposed heuristic resulted in a reduction of 40% vehicle distance travelled per week.

Mathematical Modeling of Domestic Violence and Its Trends, Case Study Tamale Metropolis, Ghana

Author(s):D. Otoo --- C. Sebil --- S. K. Amponsah 
Journal: Journal of Asian Scientific Research
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 436-447
Domestic violence has become one of the possible areas which can reduce the work force of a country. This paper presents a numerical modelling of domestic violence by using a continuous model for its spread.  A modelling technique of abusive, susceptible and violence victims, similar to the susceptible, infectious and recovered model in epidemics, is used for the formulation of the spread of domestic violence as a system of differential equations. Data used were collected from Domestic Violence and Victims Support Unit (DOVVSU) in Tamale and was analysed by using MATLAB software. The study revealed that the population of Domestic Violence Victims is limited. 

Compiling Strategies and Determining Strategic Situation E-Learning System of PNU (Payam Noor University) in Iran

Author(s):Alireza Hamidieh 
Journal: Journal of Asian Scientific Research
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 448-459
The purpose of this article is to compile strategies and to determine strategic situation of E-Learning system of PNU (Payam Noor University) in Iran. According to the objective and data collection method, this article is of applied type and descriptive-analytic respectively. The final SWOT list includes 16 strong points, 14 weak points, 17 opportunities and 15 threats identified and prioritized through confirmatory factor analysis, Bartlett and KMO tests. The results show that in advantages, the item of "identity and mission of PNU as the only distance education and open learning university in Iran" with the load factor of 0/829 has the highest level of importance and in disadvantages, the item of "mismatch of the current structure of the university with its main mission (distance education development)" with a load factor of 0/800 has the highest level of disadvantage according to the respondents. In opportunities, the item "attention of senior official at the Ministry of Science and University to the subject of Science and software movement" with a load factor of 0/850 has the highest level of importance and in threats, the item of "the development of E-learning centers in universities as actual and potential competitors" with a load factor of 0/809 as the highest case that threatens the E-learning system of PNU. Moreover, the results proved that E-Learning system of PNU need to change direction for improvement and beside internal weak points, system faced with several major external opportunities that put it in the conservative (WO) position in the SWOT matrix.
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