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An Investigation of the Environmental Influences on the Hydraulic Behavior of the Shour River (Case study: Kabudarahang, Hamadan county, west Iran)

Author(s):Parisa Jabbari, Farhad Zand
Journal: Technical Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
Publisher:Science Explorer Publications
Abstract
| Pages: 753-759
The under-study drainage basin is located in Hamadan province and a part of Qezel Ozan domain. Kabudarahang under-study drainage basin belonging to which, is located in the north of the province. Along its path, the Shour River receives a number of important tributaries like Salim Saraei, Ghader Abad, Safariz, and Chahar Sough. The investigation of the hydraulic behavior of the flow and specifying the prominent characteristics of the flow like elevation, velocity, and water levels according to different discharges are all obtained through the hydraulic studies of the flow. Providing longitudinal and transverse side-views of the water level, surveying the flow regime, and specifying the effects of structures and buildings constructed on the flow are among the other consequences of the hydraulic studies. These studies have been carried out according to the hydraulic models provided using the program HEC-HMS. In order to provide the hydraulic model of the Shour river, the required information and data including the flood discharge with different return periods, the manning coefficient, the geometry and the sections of the river, and the boundary conditions have been specified for an integrated 60-kilometer interval as the input data for the modeling. River’s geometrical information have been derived from 1/25000 topographic maps. Transferring the topographic maps into the GIS environment and inserting required preparative modifications and processing, the transverse sections of the river were provided and, afterwards, they were transmitted into HEC-HMS model in order to simulate the hydraulic of the flow. All the structures placed on the path of the river have also been taken into account in the study of the hydraulic behavior of the flow and their effects have undergone investigation and analysis. Results show that some inappropriate constructions like culverts or bridges may cause changes in the hydraulic condition of the river in the location of the construction. Such changes mostly bear negative consequences including supercritical flows and subsequently bed and side erosions.

Response to Tissue Culture in Four Canola Cultivars through Hypocotyl Explants

Author(s):AliReza Tarinejad, Parwiz Nezami, Dawoud Mohammadi, Mehran jafari
Journal: Technical Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
Publisher:Science Explorer Publications
Abstract
| Pages: 760-767
One of the alternative methods for enhancing or modifying a specific property without employing classical techniques is genetic engineering, which reduces the time necessary for a new variety production. Tissue culture is one of the technical prerequisites for genetic engineering. The present research aimed to investigate the effective parameters involved in tissue culture of canola plants and to develop an applicable protocol for mature plant regeneration. This regeneration was experimented via hypocotyl explants by four canola cultivars (Talaye, Okapi, Hyola 401, and RGS003), seven different pretreatment media, three treatments on the duration of keeping in light/dark, and four treatments on different explant ages. The data related to the regeneration of plantlet were gathered and analyzed by SAS software. The results showed that between different experimented treatments, the highest percentages of regeneration (%55) are related to 10-day-old hypocotyl explants for Hyola 401 in a M3 pretreatment medium containing NAA (0.1 mg/l), and to RGS003 (%46.65) in a M6 pretreatment medium containing NAA (0.1 mg/l) +Kin (0.5 mg/l) with the age of 10 days. The explants with the age of fewer than 15 days had the better response to tissue culture with respect to regeneration esp. the stem number above and below 1.5 cm. Moreover, the highest number of the stems below 1.5cm was obtained for Hyola 401 in medium M3 (3.5 n) and for RGS003 in medium M6 (2.5 n). The attained protocol benefits from a high level of repeatability and can be employed for regeneration and transformation of canola plants.

Effect of different natural salinity levels on yield and yield components of canola cultivars

Author(s):Alireza Tarinejad, Hamideh Ghayoumi, Bahram Alizadeh
Journal: Technical Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
Publisher:Science Explorer Publications
Abstract
| Pages: 768-775
In this study, effect of five salinity levels (0, 3, 6, 9, 12 dS/m) from Uremia lake water was studied on yield and other related traits in three spring canola genotypes canola spring genotypes (RGS003, Option500 and Option501) under greenhouse conditions. ANOVA analysis showed that salinity had significant negative effects on different traits including number of seeds and seed weight per pod, length of pod, dry matter, days to physiologic maturity and seed yield. Under different levels of salinity, seed yield showed significantly positive correlation with number of branches, number of pods per main and secondary branches, dry matter, date to physiologic maturity and oil percent. Regression and path analysis of grain yield (as dependent variable) and other traits (as independent variables) expressed that number and length of secondary pods and oil% were effective parameters on seed grain yield. Also, number of main pods had the highest positive direct effect on seed yield. Path analysis of oil% (as dependent variable) and other traits (as independent variables) expressed that number of main pods and seed weight of main and secondary pods, length of main and secondary pods, date to physiological maturity, number of branches and seed yield were effective parameters on oil percent. Mean comparison among genotypes by Duncan test at alpha=0.05 showed Option500 cultivar had the highest value of branches number, number of main and secondary pods, dry matter, seed yield and oil percent than others under different salinity conditions.

The Effect of Exchange Rate Fluctuation and Foreign Direct Investment on Employment in Iran

Author(s):Mina Nikpour, Mehdi Basirat, Abdolmajid Ahangari
Journal: Technical Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
Publisher:Science Explorer Publications
Abstract
| Pages: 776-785
Considering the importance of the effect of exchange rate fluctuation and foreign direct investment (FDI) on macroeconomic variables, such as production and employment, and with special attention to the employment issue in the developing countries (including Iran) which are encountered with problems associated with exchange rate fluctuation and unemployment for different economic and political reasons, this research studiesthe effect of real exchange rate (RER) fluctuation and FDI on employment in Iran during 1974-2009. To achieve this goal, long-term and short-term effects of this fluctuation were investigated through time-series analysis using Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model and error correction model. In this research, the direct effects of RER, FDI, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), capital intensity and export penetration index on employment in Iran are studied.The asymmetric effect of RER on employment is also examined by separating positive and negative shocks incurred bythe former. The results indicate that anincrease in RER has a negative and significant effect on employment, so that a 1% increase in RER index causes an average decrease of 0.049% in employment and an increase in FDI has a positive and significant effect on it. The results are also indicative of asymmetric effects of RER fluctuation on employment in Iran.

Factors influencing on knowledge sharing in agricultural sector from the views of extension experts in Mazandaran province, Iran

Author(s):Maryam Alami Rostami, Gholamreza DinPanah
Journal: Technical Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
Publisher:Science Explorer Publications
Abstract
| Pages: 786-791
The purpose research is factors influencing on knowledge sharing in agricultural sector from the views of extension experts in Mazandaran province, Iran. This research was a kind of descriptive – correlation. The extension experts of Mazandaran province were chosen for this research and 128 people were chosen as statistical community and they applied stratified random sampling method. The members of scientific group and the experts of Jihad agriculture organization of Mazandaran province prepared the good situation for them. The extension experts distributed 15 questionnaire and elementary test in Golestan Province and after that Reliability analysis was conducted by using and Cronbach alpha formula and result was 96.the result showed that: 23.8% who answered, they said, the levels of knowledge sharing is very low and low, 41.8% moderate and 34.4% high and very high. Also stepwise regression result revealed that educational factors could predict 14% of variations of knowledge sharing process.

Study of the Acarapis woodi and apiaries infected with mites in Mazandaran and Kordistan

Author(s):Ataollah Rahimi, Vahid Mahdavi, Mahdieh Asadi
Journal: Technical Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
Publisher:Science Explorer Publications
Abstract
| Pages: 792-795
The mite Acarapis woodi is one of the important pests of honey bee. 60 apiaries were considered from two Kordistan and Mazandaran provinces in this study and generally 655 hives were sampled and totally 273 hives were infected to this mite, the results of averages comparison were indicated in the provinces, city level, apiaries inside the city and hives of apiaries in every city. There is poor difference between two provinces in view of infection to this mite but there is meaningful difference in the cities inside every province in view of infection to this mite, but there was not meaningful difference between the apiaries inside very city.

Volatile compounds of pistacia atlantica Desf. galls and leaves by Combi-PAL system technique

Author(s):V. Rowshan, A. Bahmanzadegan, A. Tarakemeh
Journal: Technical Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
Publisher:Science Explorer Publications
Abstract
| Pages: 796-798
Pistacia atlantica Desf., a multipurpose tree, is a drought-tolerant species, which is adapted to semi-arid and arid areas and also grows wild in Southern parts of Iran. Pistacia plants are traditionally known for their medicinal properties. The gall of P. atlantica is used as an embalming gradient by rural habitants. The volatile components from fresh sample were identified and analyzed by HS (headspace)-GC-MS on the Combi PAL System technique. The numbers of volatile compound identified in the galls and leaves were 23 and 20, respectively. The main compounds of the galls and leaves were α-pinene (68.2%, 57.9%), myrcene (15.3%, 14.3%), β-pinene (6.0%, 7.0%) and camphene (5.0%, 8.7%), respectively.

Effects of Pseudomonas Strains on Growth and Nutrient Uptake of Thymus Vulgaris L.

Author(s):Kourosh Ordookhani, Delaram Ayene, Omid Alizadeh
Journal: Technical Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
Publisher:Science Explorer Publications
Abstract
| Pages: 799-803
In this study, the effects of Pseudomonas on growth, nutrient uptake, and essential oil of Thymus Vulgaris, was evaluated. The Pseudomonas treatments were included with p41, p159, p169, p187, that were compared with the control (without the effects of bacteria). The results were demonstrated that the maximum of plant height (30.26 cm), shoot fresh weight (28.83 gr), roots fresh weight (2.26 gr), shoot dry weight(3.16gr), root dry weight(0.29 gr), the essential oil(1.38%), shoot nitrogen content (2.4%), the shoot phophorus content(0.22%), shoot calcium content( 1.55%), shoot potassium content (2.76%) shoot magnesium content(0.31%), found on the treatment of p187.

Modeling of watershed morphometric effects on sediment discharge (Case study: Ghareh Chay watershed)

Author(s):Ali Reza.Ildoromi, Maryam.Dashti Marvili, Ali.Zadbar, Mostafa. Motevalli, Mohammad.Dashti Marvili
Journal: Technical Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
Publisher:Science Explorer Publications
Abstract
| Pages: 804-811
Limited number of sediment stations and recorded data, as well as the inaccurate and insufficient sediment load analysis especially in dry and semi- dry areas have caused several problems in modeling of sediment discharge. Accordingly the regional analysis seems to be a useful and appropriate model in estimation of sediment loads. In this study the model results are compared with sediment load estimation in Ghareh chay watershed, located in western Iran in an area of 221.55 km2. For 9 sub-basins with 20 years of compatible data records, the average annual suspended sediments and morphometrical factors were used respectively as predicting variables. The regression models were then applied in order to reach the goals of the research. Among the results obtained through applying bivariate regression, the elongation index, channel density, drainage density and average gradient were found important. Similarly, the length, area and perimeter of the main channel as well as Horton coefficient were found as determining factors through multiple regressions. The results revealed that the study can be utilized by decision makers and managers to an appropriate management of Ghareh chay watershed in order to reduce sediment problems.
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