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Effects of Concentrate Supplementation on Performance Characteristics of Goats Challenged with Trypanosoma brucei

Author(s):Yousuf, M. B. -- Adeloye, A. A. -- Belewu, M. A. -- Olatunde, A. O. -- Muhammad Lawal Abdul Azeez -- Daramola, J. O.
Journal: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 1-6
The influence of concentrate-feed supplementation on dry matter and nutrient intake and digestibility, nitrogen retention and body weight gain in goats challenged with trypanosomiasis was studied. Sixteen male West African Dwarf (WAD) goats (7.32 ± 0.70 kg) inoculated with 1.5 x 106 Trypanosoma brucei were divided into four treatment groups each of four replicates in a 56-day, completely randomized design experiment. Treatments consisted of varying intake levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 g/head/day) of a maize-based concentrate supplement (19.72 %; CP) to basal Panicum maximum hay (10.81 %; CP). Dry matter intake (g/head/day) of 211.77 ± 2.66, 215.14 ±  7.25, 253.28 ± 5.23, and  275.96 ± 3.65 obtained for goats fed supplement at 0,  50, 100 and 150  g/head/day respectively were different. Coefficient of crude protein or crude fibre digestibility was higher (p < 0.05) for goats fed the concentrate supplement at 100 or 150 g/head/day level than for those fed at 50 g/head/day or the control. Differences in feed nutrient intake and digestibility caused gradual improvement (p < 0.05) in body weight gain (g/head/day) from 8.39 ± 0.21 in the un-supplemented group to 18.21 ± 0.42 in goats fed concentrate supplement at 150 g/head/day. The results indicated a positive influence of concentrate supplementation on ability of the goats infected with trypanosomiasis to consume and digest feed nutrients for body weight gain. The 100 g /head/day level of supplementation was considered adequate.

Effects of Socio-economic and Demographic Variables on Meat Consumption in Vietnam

Author(s):Nguyen Van Phuong -- Tran Huu Cuong -- Marcus Mergenthaler
Journal: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 7-22
This study relates social-demographic characteristics of Vietnamese households to their consumption of meat. Pork and poultry constitute the majority of meat consumed in Vietnamese households. Hence, pork and poultry consumption have great influence on the total amount of meat consumed. Increasing pork and poultry consumption has strongly contributed to the total meat consumption growth. Tobit models are estimated drawing on the latest Vietnamese Household Living Standard Survey in 2010. The analysis of demand for pork and poultry in Vietnamese households demonstrates that meat demand in Vietnam is significantly affected by socio-economic and demographic factors of households. Understanding meat consumption patterns will help the Vietnamese government to implement policies to ensure food security. The policies may affect food redistribution between rural and urban areas, ethnic groups, the poor and the rich. In addition, food firms who wish to invest in the food market in Vietnam have to understand meat consumption patterns and meat demand to develop suitable business strategies and thereby contribute to increasing food security. This opens possibilities for domestic meat supply chains like feed producers and other livestock input suppliers, agricultural producers, processors, traders and the retail sector to take advantage of this dynamic markets sector.

Physioeconomic Poverty Analysis of Grade 1 Employees of Rawalpindi City, Pakistan

Author(s):Sabeen Siddiqui -- Zubair Anwar -- Saira Batool -- Nusrat Habib -- Sobia Naheed -- Naheed Zahra
Journal: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 23-29
Poverty though a universal phenomenon, is the worst challenge in the modern era, which is termed as the age of information and technology. The present study was designed to estimate the incidence of poverty for the grade I employees of Rawalpindi city. Determinants of poverty were explored by using Probit model, which was significant in the determination of the poverty status of the household. Following variables were used in the model; household size, education, experience, working individual, extra income and migration are the variables. For that objective, data from 150 household were collected through questionnaires. The results of the poverty indices showed that about twenty percent households were poor among grade 1 employees of Rawalpindi city. The result of probit models indicated that having large household size, with no extra income and migrants were increasing the probability of being poor while educational attainment and experiences did not had significant effect. On the other hand working individuals and migration were decreasing the probability of being poor.

An Analysis of Competitiveness and Government Policies Impact on Development of Cocoa Farming in Indonesia

Author(s):Andi Emelda -- Laode Asrul -- Palmarudi Mappigau
Journal: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 30-35
Indonesian cocoa plantations from year to year increase, on the other hand decreased cocoa production andsome government policies have been carried out in order to increase exports and tried to occupy the first rank world cocoa exporting countries.This study aims to analyze (1) comparative and competitive advantages of cocoa farming in North Luwu, (2) the impact of government policies on development of cocoa farming in North Luwu.This is a descriptive analytic study. The sampling method used was purposive sampling of 40 farmers selected. Data collected through interviews, observation and documentation. Data were analyzed using the Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM).The results showed that the value of DRC and PCR of cocoa farming is respectively 0.03 and 0.04. The impact of government policies provide incentives to develop cocoa farming in North Luwu reflected NPCI value = 1.25; NPCO = 1.12, and EPC = 1.09 are all positive values.

Climate Change Adaptation Strategies through Indigenous Knowledge System: Aspect on Agro-Crop Production in the Flood Prone Areas of Bangladesh

Author(s):Md Abdullah Al Mamun -- Muha Abdullah Al Pavel
Journal: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 42-58
This study explores the climate change adaptation strategies for agro crop production and assesses the financial suitability through indigenous knowledge in flood prone areas of Bangladesh. However, for this purpose two types of experiments have conducted with selected eight agro crop species. Firstly, the seven treatments have been experimented in a Tub (an earthen pot). In this case, Tomato (Lycoperscion esculeatum) is more beneficial among these seven treatments and average benefit-cost ratio of this treatment was 3.54. Thereafter, the seven treatments also have been experimenting in Tukri (a bamboo basket). Likewise, Tomato (Lycoperscion esculeatum) is more beneficial in the second experiment and average benefit-cost ratio in this treatment is 3.52 because the soil and the cow dung mixture have been used as a potting medium. On the contrary, Long coriander (Eryngium foetidum) is more beneficial and average benefit-cost ratio in this treatment is 4.74 after using the soil and water hyacinth mixture as a potting medium. According to indigenous knowledge, these results could be developed from different climate change adaptation strategies in farming system for production of common agro crops as well as their financial suitability by the flood affected people of Bangladesh to harness the effect of climate change.

Improving Rural Livelihood through NERICA Farming: An Inquiry into Najja Sub-county in Central Uganda

Author(s):Dan Makosa -- Nagatada Takayanagi
Journal: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 59-73
New Rice for Africa (NERICA) was introduced in Uganda to help rural farmers in improving their livelihood in terms of income and food security. Using the livelihood impact analysis technique, this study sought to assess the role of NERICA in improving rural livelihood by (i) understanding the production environment (ii) exploring the marketing opportunities and challenges and (iii) highlighting the changes in livelihood outcomes. The findings indicate that upland varieties are cultivated mainly in lowland areas and rural farmers prefer early maturity attribute to high productivity. Milling places also double as selling points where buyers and sellers meet. Selling milled rice fetches more profits than paddy. The most popular asset purchased from NERICA proceeds is land. The main challenges to production and marketing are inadequate extension service and high transport costs respectively.

Competency Capacity Building Needs of Crop Farmers in Soil Erosion Management in ENUGU State, Nigeria

Author(s):Omeh, R. U. -- Asogwa, V. C. -- Omeje, M. N
Journal: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 74-81
This study sought to determine competency capacity building needs of crop farmers in soil erosion management in Enugu State, Nigeria. Four research questions guided the study. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for this study. The study was carried out in Enugu State. The population of the study was 3,562. The sample of the study was 279 drawn using quota sampling technique. The instrument used to collect data for the study was a structured questionnaire consisting of 84 items generated from review of literature. Three experts validated the instrument. Pearson product moment correlation method was adopted to determine the stability of the questionnaire items. A reliability coefficient of 0.84 was obtained. Two hundred and seventy-three copies of the questionnaire were retrieved and analyzed using weighted mean and Improvement Needed Index (INI) to answer the research questions. It was found out that crop farmers in Enugu State needed capacity building in 15 competency items in tillage, 11competency items in mulching, 10 competency items in cover cropping and 10 competency items in strip cropping for soil erosion management. It was therefore, recommended that the state government should direct the skill acquisition centres to integrate the identified competencies into their training programmes to retrain farmers in soil erosion prevention and control.

Determining the Role of Inefficiency on Elasticity of Output Supply and Input Demand: A Case Study of Irrigated Wheat in 27 provinces of Iran

Author(s):Alireza Garshasbi -- Hossein Khosropour -- Narges Rahimian -- Aref Behrooz -- Somaye Sedighi
Journal: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 82-95
This article appraises the impressions of technical and price or allocative inefficiency on elasticity of the supply of wheat and demand of its inputs in 27 provinces of Iran. To this purpose, first the technical, price and economic efficiency has been calculated utilizing the stochastic frontier functions of production and cost. The influencing factors of efficiency including: the degree of scale economies, the share of technology in manufacturing process, the share of governmental supports, the cost of production processes and the experience have been estimated via a panel data approach. At the end, rejecting the hypothesis of perfect efficiency of farmers in production, the functions of output supply and input demand have been assessed in two scenarios (concerning efficiency and inefficiency) using a profit function and the impact of general (economic) inefficiency on relative and crossover elasticities of output and input are evaluated.  The results show that the average of technical, price and economic efficiency of irrigated wheat respectively equal to 69, 63 and 45 percent. The estimated parameters have been affected, concerning the inefficiency. Although relative elasticities of output and inputs are appeared with expected signs, entering the inefficiency, elasticity of irrigated wheat is generally increased.

Opportunities and Challenges in Cultivating Underutilized Field Crops in Moneragala District of Sri Lanka

Author(s):Malkanthi, S. H. P. -- Karunaratne, A. S. -- Amuwala, S. D. -- Silva, P.
Journal: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 96-105
Cultivation and use of underutilized crops is gradually popularizing in many countries since they create several benefits for the man and the environment. Same as in many other countries, a large number of useful underutilized crop species are available in Sri Lanka as well. Although traditional people had used them in a great deal in many different aspects of their life, the present generation has moved away from using them due to lack of knowledge and interest.  In this context, finding of the real potential of cultivating and using them in the country is timely important. Thus the aim of this research is to study the opportunities and challenges of cultivation of underutilized field crops in Sri Lanka. This research is based on the findings of the field survey using 120 farm families in Thanamalwila divisional secretariat division of the Moneragala district during January-October 2012. Results revealed that there are several opportunities such as availability of traditional knowledge, land resource, labor for cultivation etc. However, several constraints like unavailability of seeds and planting materials, lack of market infrastructure, lack of knowledge on processing and value addition, competition from modern crops, negative attitude of consumers are also affecting the cultivation and use of these crops.
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