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Analysis of Communication Sources Used by Farmers in Handling Poultry Diseases in Ughelli North Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria

Author(s):Agbamu, J. U.
Journal: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 106-112
This study examined the communication sources used by farmers in handling poultry diseases. Using random and stratified sampling techniques, 8 villages and 80 farmers were used for this study. Structured questionnaire and interview schedule were used to collect data. Data were analysed through use of percentages, mean scores and regression analysis. It was found that veterinary officers, friends and contact farmers were the major sources of communication used by the farmers in handling poultry diseases. Regulated movement of unauthorized persons, use of foot bath at entrance of poultry house, and battery cages for good litter management were the least techniques adopted by the farmers for poultry disease prevention. On the other hand, the techniques mostly adopted for disease prevention were good ventilation and hygiene, vaccination of birds and application of antibiotics in drinking water and feed. The result of regression analysis showed that veterinary officers, agricultural extension workers and friends made significant contribution to adoption of poultry disease prevention techniques. Broadcast media programmes on livestock production should be initiated and aired twice a week to provide critical information on poultry disease management to farmers.

A Study on Regional Specialization of China`s Agricultural Production: Recent Trends and Drivers

Author(s):Meilin Ma -- Sandro Steinbach -- Junqian Wu
Journal: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 113-127

Comparison of Technical Efficiency and Socio-economic Status in Animal-crop Mixed Farming Systems in Dry Lowland Sri Lanka

Author(s):Upul Yasantha Nanayakkara Vithanage -- Lokugam H. P. Gunaratne -- Kumara Mahipala M. B. P.  -- Hewa Waduge Cyril
Journal: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 128-141
Pre-tested, structured questionnaires covered management aspects, inputs, outputs, socio-economic situations and constraints in dairy farming among Semi-intensive (SIFS) and Extensive farming systems (EFS) in dry-lowland Sri Lanka. Parametric data were analyzed using two-tailed‘t’ and ‘Z’ tests, and non-parametric values were analyzed using Chi-square and Fisher’s extract tests. Cobb-Douglas model was used to calculate meta-frontier and system-specific frontiers. Returns in SIFS are lower than EFS. Labor costs are 91.72% and 87.26% in EFS and SIFS respectively. Counting family labor, SIFS has no comparative surplus. Excluding this, dairying is profitable even in SIFS. Dairying provides EFS family insurance where selling animals increases income. Discouragement of this in SIFS impacts negatively on sustainable income. Integration is comparatively minimal in EFS. Established with the best practices and technologies available, SIFS requires external resources to enhance efficiencies. If all EFS farmers achieved best farmer TE, output could increase by 45.09%. Similarly, SIFS output could increase by 57.08%. Farmer education and training programs contribute to improved production efficiency. Grassland scarcity and low productivity affect output adversely; poor veterinary and extension services are major constraints. Farmers consider dairying as profitable, which secures its future. Contrastingly, 35.19% of farmers believe it is low status, preferring professional jobs despite lower comparative incomes.

Assessment of the Effect of Fungicide and Seed Rate on the Incidence of Leaf Blast (Magnaphorthe Grisea), On the Growth of Foxtail Millet (Setaria Italica (L.) P. BEAUV) in North-eastern Nigeria

Author(s):Z. G. S. Turaki -- B. I. Richard -- M. M. Degri 
Journal: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 142-148
In 2007 a multilocational trial was conducted in a split-plot using randomized complete block University of Maiduguri and Gashua Farm station to assess the effects of fungicide and seed rate on the incidence of leaf blast (Magnaphorte grisea), on the growth and yield of foxtail millet in the Northeastern Nigeria. The results showed that the lowest disease incidence of 20.8% and 0.4% were recorded from 100% recorded significantly (P < 0.05) the highest disease incidence of 80.0% and 64.3% at Maiduguri and Gashua respectively. The highest plant height and panicle length were recorded from plants grown at fungicide seed treatment ranging from 80-100% at seed rate of 5.0kg/ha. The lowest plant height and panicle length were obtained from plants grown from the untreated seed tate of 12.5kg/ha and while the lowest grain yields were recorded from untreated seed rate of 5.0kg/h at Maiduguri and Gashua respectively.

Growth and Trend in Area, Production and Yield of Major Crops of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Author(s):Saleem Abid -- Nisar Ali Shah -- Abdul Hassan -- Arshad Farooq -- M. Asif Masood
Journal: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 149-155
The present study was conducted with a view to analyzed growth and trend in area, production and yield of major crops of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. A time series data from 1980-81 to 2011-12 (32 years) of major crops (wheat, maize, rice and sugarcane) were collected. The compound growth rate as well as trend analysis indicated that the area under wheat crop has decreased over the time due to shifting of area to other rabi crops. The production of wheat during 1981-85 to 2010-12 was increased due the corresponding increase in per hectare yield of wheat crop in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The results show that area, production and yield of maize was increased over the time the reason is that more area was brought under hybrid and improved open pollinated maize varieties. The area under rice crop has decreased whereas their production increased due the corresponding increase in per hectare yield of rice crop. It was revealed from the results that area, production and yield of sugarcane crop was increasing at a rate of 0.24 percent, 0.85 percent and 0.60 percent per annum, respectively.

The Shedding and Growth Dynamics of Yak Down Wool and Links to Habitat Ecological Conditions

Author(s):Baigalmaa Danzan -- Khishigjargal Tsedev -- Nyambat Luvsandorj
Journal: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 156-161
This research has been carried out to identify correlations between the shedding and growth dynamics of yak down wool and the ecological conditions of yak habitat. According to the research, the location of the aimags and soums where yak herds are bred in large cold Khangai mountains, with an average altitude of 2000-3300m above sea level. The average winter temperatures dropping to between -300C and -400C and average summer temperature +120C to +200C. In order to survive such harsh environment, the down wool between the coarse top hair fibres grows intensively on yaks at the start of the cold season; throughout winter a yak’s body is covered with down wool with a complete morphological structure consisting of coarse down and mid- type fibres, enabling yaks to withstand cold temperatures. With the onset of spring and warmer temperatures, the hair fibres are gradually shed until June, when new fibres appear. However, the growth of new fibres slows down in the months of July and August, intensifying with the approach of colder months. The research reveals that the adaptive capacity of yaks to the ecological conditions of their habitat affects the renewal process of the morphological structure of yak down.

Estimation of Cost and Return of Plantain Production in Orhionwon Local Government Area, Edo State, Nigeria

Author(s):Kaine, A. I. N. -- L. J. D. Okoje 
Journal: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 162-168
The study examined the cost and return of plantain production in Orhionmwon Local Government Area, Edo State. Multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 40 plantain farmers from two clans in the study area. Data required for the study were generated using questionnaire and interview schedule. Information generated was coded and analyzed using descriptive statistics, gross margin analysis, t-ratio statistic and likert scale method. The finding shows that plantain production is a very profitable enterprise and that for every one naira invested in plantain production, there is a return on investment of about N12.60 kobo. The result shows that the farmers are relatively young with majority (90 percent) below 54 years of age. About 45 percent of farmers acquired formal education. The study indicates that both male and female were engaged in plantain production enterprise. Total cost of production was N37, 983 with the variable cost item as the major component while the fixed cost was (3,934). There was a net profit of N36, 421.70. The result also shows that plantain production is affected by farm size and also that output is corrected to farm size too.

Determination of Efficacy of Metalaxyl Seed Treatment Fungicide on Incidence of Sorghum Diseases and Its Cost-Benefit in Borno State of Nigeria

Author(s):Richard, B. I. -- Ojo, G. O. S. -- Maina, T. Y.
Journal: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 169-176
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is an economically valued food and cash crop in of Nigeria. In 2001 and 2002 cropping seasons, field experiments were conducted in a split-pot using randomized complete block design to determine the efficacy of Metalaxyl fungicide and it cost-benefit on incidence of sorghum diseases in Borno State at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of crop protection, University of Maiduguri. Six sorghum genotypes which include BES, ICSV 111, ICSV 400, Warwarbashi, Paul-Biya and Ex-Mali were used. The seeds were treated with 2.5g a.i/kg of Metalaxyi, plus control before sowing. Results showed that plants grown from the untreated seeds significantly had the highest mean anthracnose incidence of 33.6% and 33.9%, sooty stripe mean incidence of 42.1% and 38.6% in 2001 and 2002, and a higher covered smut mean incidence of 10.7% in 2002 respectively. Long smut incidence and grain yield were not significant among treated and untreated seeds in 2001 and 2002. Treated plants had an increased yield of 0.28% and 28.9% more than the untreated in 2001 and 2002 respectively. Treated Ex-Mali and untreated Paul-Biya, Ex-Mali recorded higher cost-benefit ratio and net profit in monetary valued. The physiological attributes of each sorghum genotypes can dictate their choice for local uses as well.

Economics of Labour Use in Selected Food Crop Farming in Ogun State, Nigeria

Author(s):S. A. Adewuyi -- A. M. Shittu -- O. E. Fapojuwo -- S. H. Sowemimo
Journal: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 177-187
The study evaluates economic analysis of labour use in food crops production in Ogun state, Nigeria. Data were collected by the use of multistage random sampling with the help of well-structured questionnaire from a cross-section of 170 Food crop farmers and analysed using descriptive, budgetary and multiple regression. The socio-economic data of the respondents were analysed by descriptive statistics and the result revealed that majority (82.4%) of the food crop farmers were male, aged between 41 and 60 years. The mean household size was 4 persons. The mean farm size was 1.8ha with a mean farming experience of 25years. The result of the budgetary analysis reveals that for a hectare of farmland, a cost of N213, 60766 was incurred giving  a revenue of N 352,809.59 and a rate of investment (ROI) of 0.65. This shows for every N1 spent, there was corresponding profit of 65kobo. The study further revealed that farm size, labour (man-day) and cost of plant material significantly influence the revenue of farmers in the study area. The study concludes that food crop production is profitable but at a high cost of labour. The study recommends the adoption of labour savings technology as an alternative to increasing scarcity and high labour cost in the study area.
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