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Total Articles 82 - 90 of 4293 | Total Books 1 |

Analysis of Crop Rotations in the U.S. Breadbasket Using Legumes as an Alternative to Industrially-Produced Fertilizer

Author(s):Joy Marsalla Edwards, Bi-o Kim, Rolf Halden
Journal: Journal of Agricultural Science and Applications
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 169-174
Increased eutrophication of coastal waters from agricultural runoff illustrates the unsustainable management of the nitrogen cycle and its adverse effects on the environment. This study examines biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) – a natural process in which microorganisms fix atmospheric nitrogen in a symbiosis between Rhizobia and legumes – as a replacement for Haber-Bosch-nitrogen fertilizers that heavily used in the ‘breadbasket’ of the United States. The study explored the possibility, benefits, and limitations of BNF implementation by examining the feasibility, sustainability, and efficiency of nitrogen absorption by non-legume agricultural crops. Rotational crops considered included corn, soybeans, and peanuts. A combination of literature review and mathematical modeling were used to explore three cultivation scenarios: (A) present practice of perennial corn monoculture rotation approaches using either (B) soybean followed by corn, or (C) peanut followed by corn. Results from our model show that growing corn without a legume gives $1,625/ha less profit than when a rotation with peanut is used, and when soybeans are rotated, there is an annual savings of $202/ha. Additionally, the energy requirement of Scenario A was calculated to be 8.4 GJ/ha·year and 4.4 GJ/ha·year higher than those of Scenarios B and C, respectively. Based on our efficiency analysis, Scenario A requires 19.5 MJ of energy to earn 1 dollar of profit, whereas Scenarios B and C need 12.9 MJ and 11.9 MJ, respectively. Crop rotation approaches involving BNF thus aid in minimizing negative externalities of agriculture, including land degradation, fossil fuel use, crop disease, air quality impacts, and water contamination. However, the subsidy system in place today must be modified in order to promote a transformation from the current, unsustainable, high-pollution industrial system. Therefore, agricultural research must be paired with political change to evaluate a natural BNF system that may support the U.S. population more sustainably in the future.

A Review of Greenhouse Climate Control and Automation Systems in Tropical Regions

Author(s):Ramin Shamshiri, Wan Ishak Wan Ismail
Journal: Journal of Agricultural Science and Applications
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 175-182
Design and development of automation system for a tropical greenhouse involves different phases, including studying of environmental factors and crop responses, control algorithm, instrumentation and software/hardware interface. In contrast to cold arid climates, a tropical greenhouse is not to provide a warm and humid environment for crop, but to create an ideal condition in which plants can be protected against heavy rainfalls, direct sun radiation, disease, insects and birds. High relative humidity and ambient temperature climate in a tropical greenhouse creates a complicated dynamic system that is influenced by changes of external conditions, making it a challenging environmental control task. This paper reviews and addresses issues involved in the design procedure of automation control system in tropical greenhouses.

Effects of drought stress on chlorophyll content Changes of maize cultivars under field conditions

Author(s):Mehran Salami, Samad Saadat
Journal: International Journal of Farming and Allied Sciences
Publisher:Science Explorer Publications (United Kingdom)
Abstract
| Pages: 167-169
In order to assess the effects of drought stress on chlorophyll content in maize cultivars in four replications and with two irrigation and dry farming conditions in a randomized complete block design in the 2010-2011 agricultural years in Ardabil region was carried out. To calculate the amount of stress tolerance of genotypes has been used of Fernandez stress tolerance indexes. And the chlorophyll content of leaves with the CCI-200 device was measured. The results showed that stress-resistant genotypes with higher potential yield and chlorophyll content were more than half resistant cultivars. According to the results of genotypes SINGLE CROSS 302 and Single cross 647 have a highest chlorophyll index and the amount of yield and the most resistant genotypes to the drought.

The Effect of Soymilk and Carrageenan on Rheological Properties and Color of Soy Dessert

Author(s):Assieh Zahedi, Javad Keramat, Mohammad Hojjatoleslamy, Mahdi Jalaly, Mohammad Ali Shariaty, Shirin Atarod, Mohammad Zamany Moghadam
Journal: International Journal of Farming and Allied Sciences
Publisher:Science Explorer Publications (United Kingdom)
Abstract
| Pages: 170-175
The main aim of this research is the investigation of the effects of carrageenan on color measurement and rheological properties in mixed milks of cow and soy bean dessert. Different formula including ten levels of replacing of cow milk with soy milk from zero to hundred percent with 10% intervals and two levels of carrageenan (0 and 0.01%) were added, while the amount of starch (4%), sugar (5%) and strawberry flavor (0.06%) were fixed in all formula. All tests were repeated on the samples after storing at refrigerated temperatures for 2 and 7 days. However, addition of the hydrocolloid had no effect on rheological properties of the dessert samples. Consistency index of samples depended on milk to soymilk ratio. Soy dessert showed shearthining Herschel-Bulkly fluid behavior that in various concentration of soy milk and days of keeping becomes a shearthining Herschel-Bulkly fluid with yield stress. The results were also showed that lightness and redness of the samples decreased; while the yellowness was increased as the replacing of cow milk by soy milk was increased. Also, these factors were higher than those in the samples contained the hydrocolloid.

Effect of salinity and water logging on phenocycle of exotic plant Eucalyptus camaldulensis

Author(s):Chandan Singh Purohit, N. Bala
Journal: International Journal of Farming and Allied Sciences
Publisher:Science Explorer Publications (United Kingdom)
Abstract
| Pages: 176-179
Eucalyptus camaldulensis showed better growth and high total biomass under non saline water logging condition as compared to saline condition. When the salinity level were increased, it resulted slightly decrease in growth, number of leaves and flowers. Fruits were not formed because all flowers had fallen before seed set due higher salinity level.

Nitrogenase effects on wheat root and leaf foliar Sabalan Cultivar

Author(s):Masoud Karimi, Armin Baghal Mohseni
Journal: International Journal of Farming and Allied Sciences
Publisher:Science Explorer Publications (United Kingdom)
Abstract
| Pages: 180-182
One of the most important methods of crop varieties and physiological indices of stress is influenced by changes in certain metabolites. Wheat bread (Triticum aestivum) Is Iran’s most important cereal crop Compared the results obtained from the feeding solution via jets of gas from the University of wheat leaf and root environment in the laboratory using the conditions of the experiment snakes The 1 - food aid is not the solution, nitrogen, 2 - S into the city’s garbage, 3 - and 4 urban waste compost extract - distilled water (control) and in the greenhouse using the above snakes and 5 - pomace compost City The (Extract from a larger work) wind + sand showed that the laboratory conditions the highest shoot length and shoot fresh weight of the average of the snake in the urban waste compost extract than in controls. Ratio shoot to root in the compost extract, equivalent to 90% of urban and 45% in the rest of the snake S in comparison with controls had increase’s conditions On the heights of greenhouse gas dissolved in the patient requiring food aid made up of nitrogen and the residue of compost. Snakes on the length of the root pulp in the compost, food aid is not the solution, nitrogen and S the CDs were given to the first three. Population of snakes in the compost extract and S B the highest in comparison to the dry weight of the air forces of production efficiency in the pot.

The study of wheat genotypes is planted in Ardabil using multivariate statistical methods

Author(s):Bahram Mirzamasoumzadeh, Somayeh Ghalichechi, Mehran Salami, Masoud Karimi, Armin Baghal Mohseni
Journal: International Journal of Farming and Allied Sciences
Publisher:Science Explorer Publications (United Kingdom)
Abstract
| Pages: 188-189
Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is most important cereal crop in Iran. It is growing in a wide range of weather conditions and is compatible species in cereals. Wheat is the staple food of man. To study the genetic diversity in 20 wheat genotypes in Ardabil province in terms of the main traits morphological and phonological and yield and its components and to investigate the relationships between the various characters through multivariate statistical methods, a test was done in augmented design in 7 blocks. Correlation analysis showed that traits of days to flowering had the highest positive and significant correlation with yield and grain weight showed a significant and negative correlation with yield. The results of factor analysis revealed five factors are explained together 81.4% of the total variation. Regression analysis through decline method for predict the yield respectively plants brigade , the number of days to flowering, stem diameter, number of seeds per plant and days to fill heading was used into in models. The results of cluster analysis classified genotypes evaluated in 10 distinct groups.

A Survey of Physicochemical Properties of Produced Honey in Isfahan province of Iran in 2012

Author(s):Aghil Aarabi, Hassan Mirhojjati, Hashem Naieri, Mojtaba Nouri, Mohammad Ali Shariaty* and Mohammad Zamany Moghadam
Journal: International Journal of Farming and Allied Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 183-187
Honey is the natural sweet substance produced by honey bees from nectar of plants or from secretions of living parts of plants or excretions of plant sucking insects on the living pans of plants. Physicochemical properties of honeys in each region are related to kind of plant and flower, therefore knowing its component is important. In this research , 30 samples of produced honey were from collected in Isfahan province of Iran including Khansar , Najafanad ,Fereidonshar cities sample. Honey samples were sent to the food chemistry laboratory. Then, some physicochemical parameters such as humidity percent, solid matter, ash, acidity and pH were determined. Result indicated that Isfahan province considered as the active region in producing honey cause of its nice physiochemical properties which were less than critical limits. Among the mentioned cities, Khansar honey which contains less ash and taking into account its other properties bein claimed the most plant origin.

Economic Threshold Density of Multi Species Weed for Direct Seeded Rice

Author(s):Md. Abdullah Al Mamun, Rakiba Shultana, Md. Masud Rana, Abdul Jalil Mridha
Journal: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 523-531
We conducted two experiments in 2009 and 2010 at central part of Bangladesh to examine the effects of multispecies weeds on grain yield and to determine the economic threshold (ET) of weeds in direct seeded rice (DSR). The treatments consisted of 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 weeds m-2 and control (unweeded). Scirpus maritimus L. and Cyperus difformis L. were the most dominant weed species in year 1 and 2, respectively. Grain yield losses due to weed interference increased with weed population density increase. Panicle m-2, grains panicle-1, 1000-garin weight and grain yield varied significantly due to different weed density in both years of the study. Estimated ET were 5 and 7 weeds m-2 in year 1 and 2, respectively, assuming a weed free rice grain yield 5 ton ha-1, a crop price $ 210 ton-1, and weed control cost $ 30 ha-1.
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