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Agricultural Sciences

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Total Articles 73 - 81 of 4293 | Total Books 1 |

Effect of Feed Additives on Growth, Survival Rate and Feed Utilization of Carp Fingerlings (Cyprinus Carpio L.)

Author(s):Noori Abdul-Nabi Nasir -- Qusay Hamid Al-hamadany -- Jasem Hamid Saleh
Journal: Continental Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 1-6
This study was carried out to assess the effect of different commercial feed additives on growth, survival rate and feed utilization of carp fingerlings. Three treatments were used, control, Toniphos and Periavit respectively. The experiment lasted for 45 days. The maximum growth was obtained with Toniphos and Periavit treatments respectively. On the other hand, the reduced growth was recorded at treatment with control. Generally, growth and feed conversion ratio were improved for carp fingerlings fed on diets with feed additives compared to fish fed on the control diet. Feed cost essential to make 1Kg weight gain compared to fish fed the control diet treatment was reduced by using feed additives (Toniphos and Periavit).These results indicated that using Toniphos at level of 0.1% was the greatest in terms of growth performance and economic evaluation.

Bioremediation of Different Waste Waters - A Review

Author(s):Adnan Amin -- A.T.Ramchandra Naik -- Mudassir Azhar -- Harsha Nayak
Journal: Continental Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 7-17
Bioremediation of different waste waters is a relatively new technology that has undergone more intense investigation in recent decades. As rapid industrialisation and urbanisation releases numerous toxic compounds into natural water bodies, polluting both fresh water resources as well as marine water. This process is focused on destroying or immobilizing toxic waste materials present in these water sources. Several techniques have been proposed for efficient wastewater treatment, most of them presenting some limitations, such as poor capacity, the generation of waste products, incomplete mineralisation and a high operating cost. The bioremediation of waste waters can be divided into two broad categories: In-situ and Ex-situ treatment. Both methods have significant advantages and disadvantages. The bioremediation process for different waste waters is discussed in this paper in brief.

Food and Feeding Ecology of Tilapia Guineensis (Bleeker) In Rumuolumeni Creek, Niger Delta: Implications for Aquaculture

Author(s):Fayeofori G. Bob-Manuel
Journal: Continental Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 18-24
The paper investigated the food and feeding ecology of a brackish water fish Tilapia guineensis in the Rumuolumeni Creek of the Niger Delta, Nigeria. A total of 1,030 fish specimens were collected consisting of 565 juveniles and 465 Adults and examined for stomach content. The ‘Points’ and frequency of occurrence methods were used for the gut content analysis. In the ‘point’ method, a total of 100 points was given to all the stomach content and these points shared among them as the volume of each item was taken. Here only stomachs that were more than half filled were used. The points obtained by each food item from all the stomachs observed were summed and taken as a percentage of the total number of point. In the frequency of occurrence method the total number of gut in which each food item occurred was recorded and taken as a percentage of the total number of individuals examined. The results indicate that the juveniles of T. guineensis feed mainly on zooplankton while the adult fish depend more on aquatic plants and invertebrates. It is opined that this mode of feeding could give an insight in feed formulation for intensive culture of T. guineensis.

Methods Used in Digestibility Evaluation of Fish Diets: A Review and Challenges

Author(s):Fayeofori G. Bob-Manuel
Journal: Continental Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 25-37
This paper is an attempt at taking a critical look at work done on digestibility studies in fish nutrition research. It also made an assessment of the various inert markers used in digestibility studies both external and internal (indigenous). It observed that although chromic oxide is the most widely used external marker prospect exist for the use of indigenous markers like crude fibre and acid insoluble ash, that are part of the diet or nutrient in the feed. It also looked at the components of these inert markers. Furthermore, the methods used in faecal collection were x-rayed and this includes faecal collection from the rearing tank, from the lower part of the large intestine and from metabolism chambers. The demerits in each of these methods were highlighted. Finally, the inherent challenges in the course of carrying out research work on digestibility were evaluated and suggestions and recommendations made on how to overcome some of these challenges.

Sexual Recognition and Mating Behavior of the Populus Longhorned Beetle, Batocera lineolata (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)

Author(s):Hua YANG, Wei YANG, Chun Ping YANG, Tian Hui ZHU, Qiong HUANG, Ying-Yan LIU
Journal: Journal of Agricultural Science and Applications
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 137-142
We studied the sexual recognition and mating behavior of B. lineolata by video tracking capture system (EthoVision 3.1) and field observation, in order to get some fundamental information for the effective control of Batocera lineolata Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and enrich the reproductive behavior of the insect. Result showed that, during the encountering, the intersection time of two tracks and net relative movements for the female-male group were longer than for the female-female group or the male-male group; while the reaction time was shorter than the latters. A complete mating of B. lineolata included three stages, i.e. (ⅰ) pair-bonding (ⅱ) mating attempt and ejaculation (ⅲ) post-copulatory guarding. The average time of pair-bonding is 2.16 min, and 10.28 min, 5.37 min for mating and post-copulatory guarding, respectively. In mating experiments with different sex ratios, the mating number fluctuated regularly, and it was greatly different in mating number for male or female individuals. The virgin female or male, spent more total ejaculation time than mated ones. Higher mating rates were observed on the host plant than on the open ground. The mating behavior in the field test was similar to results from the laboratory experiment.

Assessment of Agricultural Extension Agents’ Knowledge and Attitude towards Agricultural Insurance in Osun State, Nigeria

Author(s):A. O. Ajayi
Journal: Journal of Agricultural Science and Applications
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 143-150
This study assessed agricultural extension agents’ knowledge and attitudes towards agricultural insurance in Osun State, Nigeria. Specifically, it described the extension agents’ personal and socio-economic characteristics; assessed the extension agents’ knowledge and attitude towards agricultural insurance; and identified the determinants of extension agents’ knowledge and attitudes towards agricultural insurance. One hundred and six extension agents were randomly selected from those in the public service of the State. Questionnaires that were subjected to reliability and validity tests were administered. Data collected were summarised with descriptive statistics such as frequency distribution while the hypothesis was tested with Pearson Product Moment Correlation. Regression analysis was used to investigate the contribution of selected variables to change in extension agent’s knowledge of agricultural insurance. Results of the study showed that extension agents were academically qualified for the job but 38.7% were rated as having low knowledge of agricultural insurance. About 74% had indifferent attitude towards the scheme. Years of formal education (r=-0.217; p≤0.05), number of trainings attended (r=0.228; p≤0.05) and the attitude of extension agents towards the scheme (r=0.228; p≤0.05) have significant relationship with extension agents’ knowledge of agricultural insurance. Also, unit change in years of formal education (b=-0.226; p≤0.05), number of officers supervised (b=0.280; p≤0.01), ownership of personal farm (b=0.193; p≤0.05) and attendance at agricultural finance related training (b=-0.297; p≤0.05) contributed significantly to unit change in knowledge score of the respondents. In conclusion, it is recommended that specialised training on agricultural insurance be organised for extension agents. Pre-service training curriculum of extension agents should incorporate agricultural insurance.

A Comparative Study of Physico-Chemical, Proximate Composition and Microbiological Muscle Properties, in Two Species Shrimps of the Pacific Tropical Coast

Author(s):D. Puga-López, J.T. Ponce-Palafox, G. Barba-Quintero, M. Rosalía Torres-Herrera, E. Romero-Beltrán, J.L. Arredondo Figueroa
Journal: Journal of Agricultural Science and Applications
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 151-154
Physicochemical, proximate composition and microbiological analysis of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) and blue shrimp (L. stylirostris) tissues were compared. The wild shrimp were collected off the coasts of Sinaloa, México (in front Navachiste Bay, Guasave) and of Nayarit (in front Boca de Cuautla-Novilleros, Tecuala), Mexico. The results of our study suggested that meats of white and blue shrimp are a good source of protein and lipids. The blue shrimp tend to have better protein content than white shrimp, and white shrimp tend to have better lipid content than blue shrimp.

Characterization of Rabbit Production Systems in Kenya

Author(s):J K Serem, M M Wanyoike, C K Gachuiri, S K Mailu, P K Gathumbi, R N Mwanza, N Kiarie, D K Borter
Journal: Journal of Agricultural Science and Applications
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 155-159
Rabbit production systems in Kenya were studied; challenges to production were identified and recommendations to boost rabbit productivity were suggested in this research. Four regions of Kenya with significant rabbit farming were selected: Rift valley (Nakuru county), Central (Kiambu and Nyeri counties), Eastern (Meru county) and Coastal (Taita Taveta county) regions. Data were obtained through a field survey, questionnaires and personal observations between August and September 2011. The study covered the key areas of rabbit production including: general farm details, number of rabbits, breeds and breeding practices, housing, feeds and feeding practices, Constraints to production and recommendations appertaining to the key production challenges. Results showed that rabbit production in Kenya were mainly small scale (84.8%) principally for income generation and home consumption (89.6%). The majority (75%) of the rabbit farms were owned by either the household heads or by the spouses. Farmers of higher education levels kept more rabbits compared to those of lower education. The main breeds kept were New Zealand white (29%), Crossbreeds (24%), Californian white (12%), Chinchilla (11.5%), Dutch (8%), Flemish Giant (5.5%) and French Lop (4%). The main breeding stocks were selected from own stocks or from the neighboring farms (90%). Exchange of males (bucks) for breeding was observed among some rabbit farmers, either for free or at an agreed fee. The four most important challenges to rabbit farming were rabbit diseases (71%), lack of market for rabbits (51%), inadequate husbandry (28%) and lack of quality breeding stock (15.5%), insufficient funds (11%) and lack of rabbit feeds (8.7%). To address these challenges, sensitization of the Kenyan population on the benefits of rabbit meat consumption should be promoted, farmers should be trained on proper husbandry practices, better breeding stocks must be introduced to the farmers to avoid inbreeding, research on rabbit feeding and disease management must be improved to provide information on proper husbandry practices so as to boost rabbit productivity.

A Mechanistic Approach to Topsoil Damage due to Slip of Tractor Tyres

Author(s):Andrea Battiato, Etienne Diserens, Lyesse Laloui, Luigi Sartori
Journal: Journal of Agricultural Science and Applications
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 160-168
High slip of tractor traction tyres causes topsoil damage in terms of soil cutting effect with the formation of a strengthless layer strongly exposed to erosion and an underlying layer where shear deformations contribute to the alteration of soil structure functionalities. The cutting effect is clearly indicated by longitudinal topsoil shear displacement. In spite of a recognized need for limiting the slip of tractor tyres, no theoretical approaches have been presented so far to indicate a range where no topsoil damage occurs. In this paper mechanical conditions along the soil-tyre contact surface which lead to topsoil cutting were analysed with a soil-tyre interaction model and discussed on the basis of traction tests with a MFWD tractor on an agricultural silt loam Calcaric Fluvisol. The longitudinal topsoil shear displacement was measured for a slip ranging between 5% and 48%. An evident topsoil failure took place as soon as the shear stress along the soil-tyre contact approached the soil strength. Values of slip at which this condition was reached were identified for three tractor configurations. These slip values should be regarded as indicative limits not to be exceeded in tillage operations in order to avoid topsoil damage in the conditions considered.
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