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Willing, but Unable: Determinants of Participation Rates for Training Workshops in Central Vietnam

Author(s):Ryan P. Gockel and Alison C. Cullen
Journal: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 753-766
This article examines the determinants affecting individuals’ previous participation in training workshops in rural Vietnam. This is the first study to examine training program participation rates in a rural Asian context. According to a survey conducted in Ha Tinh Province, Vietnam in 2008, more than 90 per cent of individuals expressed an interest in participating in a job-training program, yet only 41 per cent participated the previous year. This disconnect presents a serious challenge to increasing job training participation rates. We find that gender, age, location, and also behavioral constraints such as an individual’s risk attitude and willingness to compete are significant predictors of previous participation. Our results also indicate that those who could benefit most from job-training programs participate at lower rates. Governments and NGOs need to rethink development models taking these behavioural constraints into account. By designing interventions aimed at mitigating these constraints, participation rates for rural individuals will likely improve, offering a chance to improve livelihoods.

Identification of Fungus Flora Associated with Lagenaria Siceraria (Molina) Standl in Cote d’Ivoire

Author(s):Koffi Ahébé Marie-Hélène, Atta Diallo Hortense and Zoro Bi Irié Arsène
Journal: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 767-779
Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl is a cucurbit which seeds are consumed by people in rural and urban Africa. This plant is subjected to a strong parasitic and diseases pressure that reduces seeds production. Efficient fight against plant parasite, particularly fungus is a prerequisite for an improved productivity. This study was undertaken in five localities (Alepe, Bondoukou, Bongouanou, Divo and Korhogo) belonging to three agroecological areas of Côte d’Ivoire. The aim was to identify fungal genera infecting L. siceraria in order to design an efficient control measure. Leaf samples with necrosis and discoloration symptoms were collected throughout the localities and subsequently, fungus were isolated and identified in laboratory. From a total of 750 samples collected, 7 types of symptoms were distinguished. Fungal genera found in all of the localities were Aspergillus, Botryosphaeria, Cochliobolus, Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia and Phoma. Only Pestalotiopsis was specific to the locality of Divo. An ANOVA test performed on the data showed a significant difference between fungal genera in terms of isolation frequency. Principal components analysis revealed that fungus distribution in each locality was correlated with climatic factors. 

Gender Analysis of Rural Dwellers Accessibility to Free Natural Resources in Ussa Local Government Area of Taraba State, Nigeria

Author(s):Catherine O. Ojo, Hadiza S. Nuhu and Thomas A. Igbankwe
Journal: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 609-614
The study analyzed gender accessibility of rural dwellers to free natural resources in Ussa Local Government Area of Taraba State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected using structured questionnaire. Sixty respondents were selected purposively to ensure that only forest resource gatherers were included in the study. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data collected. The findings of the study revealed that equal number of male and female respondents (41.4% each) were farmers. Also 32.4% and 31% of male and female respondents were landless. About 62% of male and 75.7% of female respondents were educated. About 87% and 90% of male and female had household sizes of over 5 persons. Men had more access to high income yielding forest resources than women. The result showed that the women took more of what they gathered home to meet household needs while a little was sold for income, while men sold most of what they collected with only little was left for home consumption. Based on the results of the study, it was recommended that increased gender based capacity building and responsibility for management of free natural resources should be encouraged among rural dwellers in order to ensure sustainability of the resources in contributing to food security and poverty alleviation among free natural resource gatherers in the study area.

The Policy Strategy of Rice Straw Utilization of as Feed for Ruminants

Author(s):Jasmal  A. Syamsu and Hasmida Karim
Journal: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 615-622
As it is known that the success of the livestock business associated with feeding management support. Bantaeng District is one district that prioritizes the development of animal husbandry for the welfare of society, also this district has a great potential of agricultural waste. The tools used in the analysis is SWOT-Analysis (Strengths-Weakness-Opportunities-Threats). This matrix combines opportunities and threats which can be match to the strengths and weaknesses to produce an alternative strategy, that is SO strategy, strategy WO, WT strategy, and ST strategy. The final step is making the decision to determine which strategies are feasible alternatives and the best, with Quantitative Strategies Planning Matrix (QSPM) analysis which had previously been given an Attractiveness Score questionnaire. The result of research were the strategies require the provision of rice straw storage in groups on large livestock production centers, increased use of rice straw as a staple feed of cattle, provision of quality rice straw in the dry or drought season, supply and use of straw as animal feed with various methods of delivery and utilization.

The Effect of Nitrogen and Sulfur Addition on Bioethanol Solid Waste Fermented by the Consortium of Trichoderma viride and Saccharomyces cerevisiae towards Dry Materials, Organic Materials, Crude Protein and Non Nitrogen Protein

Author(s):Yani Suryani, Iman Hernaman, Ana Rochana, Ayu Setiawati, Gilang Dayinta Paramarta and Poniah Andayaningsih
Journal: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 622-631

Effects of Continuous Cultivation of Soil on Termites (Isoptera) Diversity and Abundance in Savannas of Northern of Cote d’Ivoire

Author(s):Coulibaly Tenon, Boga Jean-Pierre, Yapi Ahoua and Kouassi Kouassi Philippe 
Journal: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 632-649
To highlight the continuous cultivation of soil on biodiversity in savannas of Korhogo in the north of Cote d’Ivoire, termites were studied with regard to their use as bio-indicators of habitat change in the tropics. Using a standardized method, termites were sampled in five types of plots (PCR 1, PCR 2, PCR 3, PCR 10 and PCR 30) which age of continuous cultivation varies from 1 to 30 years in comparison with the primary savanna. The diversity of termites has differed statistically between the habitat types. The species richness highest in the primary savanna (24 species), decreases progressively with the continuous cultivation of soil to reach lowest in the elderly cultures plots PRC 30 (9 species), either 64 % of reduction. Continuous cultivation of soil causes a drastic reduction in soil-feeders group (75 % of reduction on PCR 2). But there was no significant change in termites’ diversity between the savanna and the recent culture PCR 1. The cultivation of soil would have, in the first years, a positive effect on the diversity and abundance of wood feeders. This study shows the impact inflicted by the continuous cultivation of soil on the communities of termites in Korhogo region.

Gender Resource Accessibility and Profitability among Groundnut Producers in Hong Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria

Author(s):Ojo, C. O., Ghide, A. A. and Phanuel, E. 
Journal: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 650-656
The study aimed to examine gender resource accessibility and profitability among groundnut producers in Hong Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was used to sample 54 respondents (27 male and 27 female) by the use of a structured questionnaire. The data from the survey were analysed using frequency distribution and gross margin analysis. The results showed that the men were generally older and more experienced than the women with 77.8% and 55.5% of men and women respectively being over 40 years of age and 51.9% and 37.1% of men and women respectively having farming experience of over 20 years. The perception of the respondents was that men had more access to resources and opportunities that enhance productivity (land, labour, chemicals, market and education) than women (fertilizer, seeds, and cooperatives). Gross margin per hectare of men was N62, 693 while that of women was N37, 732. It was recommended that credit provision in cash and kind to women by Government and other relevant organisations be encouraged in order to give women improved access to production resources to increase women’s productivity and profitability.

Assessment of the Adoption Rate of Technologies among Fadama III Farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria

Author(s):Umar, Adamu Madu
Journal: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 657-666
The study was conducted in Adamawa State, Nigeria. The major thrust of this study is to assess the adoption rate of technology in Fadama III. In its four years of operation, Fadama III project has realized significant impact on household access to new and proven technologies. Adoption rate of technologies among beneficiaries has increased from 43.75% before the inception of the project to 96.255% after the project intervention. This indicates 50% increase against only 20% increase among the non-beneficiaries. Adoption rate of off-farm technologies (agricultural marketing and financial management) was also large. The adoption rate for the all the technologies was significant at p = 0.05, except for fish feed formulation, Cold storage, marketing and fish smoking. Yields among respondents have increased significantly due to adoption of proven technologies. The increase was higher among crop farmers (59.38%) followed by livestock farmers (48.75%). The increase in yields across all the enterprises has exceeded the set target of 20% increase except for fish production (11.25%) and Agro-forestry (6.88%). The increase was more among the beneficiaries compared to non-beneficiaries. It can be concluded that project did not only influence the beneficiaries to adopt technologies for the purpose of improving their socio-economic status but it has also influenced the non-beneficiaries living in Fadama III communities to adopt technologies. Fadama III needs to harmonize existing approaches and need to use complementary systems rather than conflicting ones.

Response of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) Genotypes to Wicth Weed (Alectra vogelii Benth) Infection

Author(s):Joyful Tatenda Rugare, Stanford Mabasa and Shylet Tsekenedza 
Journal: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 667-673
A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted at the University of Zimbabwe to screen six cowpea varieties for resistance to Alectra vogelii infection. Emergence of A. vogelii was first detected 55 days after crop emergence. A. vogelii emergence was not significantly (P > 0.05) influenced by cowpea genotype. No differences (P > 0.05) in cowpea parameters that were measured were observed among the cowpea genotypes. However, A. vogelii infection significantly (P < 0.05) reduced cowpea shoot biomass and pod number by 57 % and 98 %, respectively. Infected cowpeas failed to produce any pods at all with the exception of cowpea cultivar C/83/4/6 and C/85/6/4. A similar trend of results was observed with grain yield. Root biomass was not significantly influenced by A. vogelii infection. A. vogelii infected cowpeas had significantly (P < 0.05) higher root /shoot ratio compared to uninfected plants. Based on results on A. vogelii emergence and cowpea parameters collected in this study, it can be concluded that all the cowpea genotypes evaluated are susceptible to A. vogelii infection. However, it can also be concluded that the two pre-released varieties C/83/4/6 and C/85/6/4 are moderately susceptible because they were able to produce grain and should therefore be further evaluated under field conditions.
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