ADVERTISEMENT

Agricultural Sciences

Search by keywords:
Total Articles 28 - 36 of 4293 | Total Books 1 |

Weed Management in Zimbabwean Smallholder Conservation Agriculture Farming Sector

Author(s):Tarirai Muoni -- Blessing Mhlanga
Journal: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 269-278
Weed management is one of the major constraints in the Zimbabwe smallholder farming sector contributing to smallholder poor yields, hence there is need to identify cropping systems that have potential to reduce weed pressure while improving crop yields. Conservation agriculture has been suggested as one of these farming systems. The implementation of CA three key principles reduces weed pressure even when the use of herbicides is minimised. Crops included in crop rotations, intercropping or relay cropping may have faster growth rate than weeds hence, have a comparative advantage over weeds. Maintenance of permanent soil cover through crop residues impedes weed germination thereby reducing weed population. Elimination of ploughing also reduces the chances of bringing buried weed seeds to the surface where their chances for germination are high. Hence, some seeds lose viability thus reducing weed density. Weed seeds accumulate at the surface, when allowed to set seed, increasing their exposure to predation resulting in reduction of weed density over time. The use of herbicides ensures that the fields are weed free as the season’s progress thus ensuring better yields at the end of each growing season. Hence, weeds are reduced in CA systems over time despite the weeding option used.

Impact Factors of Days Open Cost on Dairy Profitability

Author(s):Zainalabidin Mohamed -- Ismail Abd Latif -- Ali Chizari 
Journal: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 277-280
Effort to decrease cost of production is a mainly step to improve profitability at the farm. Hidden cost, specifically, days open cost as a huge part of operation cost in dairy herd is one of important task of the managers. The aim of this study investigate of days open cost to identify, assess and control it. Pregnancy rate, culling rate, death rate, mastitis, lameness and also milk price, feed cost, heifer price, cull price, calf price and veterinary cost are included the fundamental costs which has been considered.

Technical Efficiency of Maize Production in Nigeria: Parametric and Non-Parametric Approach

Author(s):Yusha`u Hassan -- Amin Mahir bin Abdullah -- Mohd Mansor Ismail -- Zainalabidin Mohamed
Journal: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 281-291
The study was carried out to provide empirical evidence on technical efficiency of maize production in Nigeria using parametric and non-parametric approaches. The study employed annual secondary data on maize production in Nigeria from 1971 to 2010.Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) were used to estimate the technical efficiency of maize production. The results revealed that, the mean technical efficiency scores were 64.1%, 77.8% and 87.7% for technical efficiency under stochastic frontier analysis, technical efficiency of DEA constant return to scale and technical efficiency of DEA variable return to scale assumptions, respectively. These showed that the efficiency scores obtained from DEA are higher than those obtained from SFA. The results implied that, the country can expand its scope of output production by 35.5%, 22.2% and 12.3% for technical efficiency under stochastic frontier analysis, data envelopment analysis constant return to scale and variable return to scale, respectively. It is concluded that under the two methods used farmers can still expand their scope of output production through appropriate combination and use of production inputs at the given technology.

Effect of Substitution of Wheat with Maize on Technological and Organoleptic Properties of Chapatties

Author(s):Saeeda Raza -- Saima Kanwal -- Khalid Naseem -- Naseem Bibi -- Amina Bibi
Journal: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 292-296
Unleavened flat bread (chapatti) was prepared from wheat (Tritium aestivum) and maize (Zea mays) composite flour. The wheat flours from mill and grindstone were collected from local market and blended with maize flour in 100:0, 90:10, 80:20 proportions. Technological and rheological studies revealed that gluten, falling number and water absorption values decreased with increased maize proportion. Increased dough development time by addition of 20% maize flour for either flour types was observed. Decrease in dough stability was observed by increased maize proportion in grindstone flour but in mill flour decrease with 10% maize and increase with 20% maize is noted. Overall Farinographic quality was highest in 20% blend of maize in grindstone flour. Chapatties were prepared and subjected to organoleptic tests by a panel of trained judges and 20% blend get maximum acceptability.

Hydraulic Conductivity Functions in Relation to Some Chemical Properties in a Cultivated Oxisols of a Humid Region, Delta State, Nigeria

Author(s):Egbuchua, C. N.
Journal: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 297-303
The study was conducted to evaluate hydraulic conductivity functions in relation to some soil chemical properties in an oxisols of the tropics. Field and laboratory studies were carried out and data collected, subjected to statistical analytical procedure for computing coefficient of variability and correlation among soil properties. Results of the study showed that hydraulic conductivity functions varied spatially and temporarily across the experimental points with a moderate mean value of 0.0026 cm/h and a coefficient o variation of 31.45% soil chemical properties showed that the soils were acidic with a mean pH value of 5.12. Organic carbon, total nitrogen and available phosphorus were low with mean values of 1.29%, 0.68% and 4.43 mgkg-1. Coefficient of variability among soil properties indicated less to moderately variable. Soil pH had negative correlation with all the soil properties evaluated.

The Structure and Competitiveness of Pakistanís Basmati Rice Exports

Author(s):Nadeem Akmal -- Waqar Akhtar -- Hassnain Shah -- Muhammad Azam Niazi -- Tariq Saleem
Journal: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 304-312
This paper provides an analysis on structure of export and competitiveness of Pakistan’s basmati rice over the period 1987-88 to 2011-12 by using revealed comparative advantage (RCA) and regional revealed comparative advantage (RRCA) approaches. Results demonstrate that overall Pakistan’s share in world basmati market has declined from 47% in 1987-92 to 32% in 2008-12 periods at global level and also at regional level i.e. Iran, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates (UAE) markets. However Pakistan has increased its market participation in Oman and United Kingdom (UK) from 60 % to 83 % and 14% to 39 % respectively during the period under analysis. Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sultanate of Oman, UAE, and UK have shown a high geographic concentration in basmati exports from Pakistan however registered a decline in export concentration over time. The analysis of export competitiveness revealed that the Pakistan has revealed comparative advantage in basmati export, implying revealed competitiveness of very high degree as basmati remained a dominant commodity of Pakistan’s export basket. Over the period basmati export competitiveness has shown a fluctuating pattern and clearly diminishing pattern in recent years. This calls for science based strategies to maintain comparative advantage and market participation in basmati rice exports from Pakistan. There is also need to focus on the sector to improve export chain to obtain access in Europeans markets like UK is vital for enhancing future economic performance of rice sector and improving competitiveness in Basmati exports to ensure foreign exchange earnings for country.

Morphological and Physical Characteristics of Soils Developed on a Toposequence Derived from Coarse-grained Pegmatites in a Tropical Region, Delta State, Nigeria

Author(s):Egbuchua, C. N. 
Journal: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 313-323
A study was conducted to evaluate the morphological and physical characteristics of a soil devel-oped on a toposequence using fire slope positions. Modal profile pits were dug in each of the slope positions and characterized. Soil samples were collected from each of the pedogenetic horizons and analyzed routinely for particle size distribution of bulk/particle densities and total porosity. Results showed that the landscape had a relative elevation of 0-24. 25 m with a slope gradient value from the crest to valley bottom as: 1.68, 1.55, 1.46, 1.42 and 1.22%. Soil colour from the crest to the valley bottom varied significantly from dominant 5YR to 7.5 YR and 10YR respec-tively. Soil depth, structure, consistence and rootlets varied significantly (P ≤ 0.05) across slope position. Bulk and particle densities value were higher in the crest and upper-slope positions with mean values of 1.20 gcm-3 and 2.35 gcm-3. There were no significant variations (P > 0.05) in parti-cle size distribution across slope position.

Examination of Urban Consumersí Propensity to Consume Margarine by Applying Correspondence Analysis

Author(s):Slobodan Nicin
Journal: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 324-332
It is well known that margarine as food is of great nutritious significance to the nourishment of the population. The aim of this paper is to carry out research, which is based on the data obtained from the survey, regarding the propensity of urban population market consumers to consume margarine. The survey has been carried out on a representative sample of the citizens of urban area. Correspondence analysis will be used in this paper, with the aim of determining the impact of selected factors on consumers? preferences for margarine.

Crop Residue Management in Conservation Agriculture Systems in Zimbabwe Smallholder Farming Sector: Importance, Management Challenges and Possible Solutions

Author(s):Blessing Mhlanga -- Tarirai Muoni
Journal: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 333-340
Conservation agriculture (CA) is promoted as a cropping system that has potential to alleviate poor crop yields in smallholder farming while protecting the environment. It involves maintenance of permanent soil cover, diverse crop rotations and/or interactions; and minimum soil disturbance. CA is associated with crop residue management challenges due to low crop biomass yields and crop-livestock interactions in Zimbabwean smallholder farming sector. There is competition on crop residue uses causing challenges in retaining adequate crop residues for full benefits of using residues to be realised. Among the crop residues management options fencing fields reduces the chances of crop residues grazing by free roaming cattle during the dry season. Construction of rakes to pile up crop residues where cattle cannot access has been practiced in some communal areas. Farmers have practised the system of taking the crop residue harvest to homesteads into protected areas to reduce risk of grazing. Farmers may use fences around fields to reduce access into fields. However, all these management options require an investment from the farmers who are resource constrained. Farmers may use non-crop residues such as thatch grass and reduce competition for crop residue use where farmers feed them to livestock during the dry season.
Page:12345678910Next
ADVERTISEMENT