Biological Sciences

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In vitro evaluation of ethano-botanically important plant extracts against early blight disease (Alternaria solani ) of tomato

Author(s):C. Maya , M. Thippanna
Journal: Global Journal of Bio-Science and Biotechnology
Publisher:Society for Science and Nature
Abstract
| Pages: 248-252
The Tomato (Lycoperiscum esculantum) is a diploid species with 2n=24 chromosomes and belongs to the family Solanaceae. It is the world’s largest vegetable crop after potato. The area under tomato in India is about 4.97 lakh hectares with a production of about 86 lakh tons. Early blight is caused by the fungus Alternaria solani Sorauer. This disease in severe cases can lead to complete defoliation and is most damaging on tomato in regions with heavy rainfall, high humidity and fairly high temperatures (24oC-29oC). A. solani is characterized by septate beaked muriform conidia borne singly on simple conidiophore, In the present study Ten locally available plants which are ethano-botanically important are selected viz., Amaranthus caudatus, Anacardium occidentale, Azadirachta indica, Bambusa arundinacea , Capsicum annuum, Ecballium elaterium, Eucalyptus gobules, Ficus religiosa , Lantana camara and Morus alba aquoes and thier extracts were evaluated against A. solani by poison food technique. The results revealed that leaf and seed extracts of A.indica recorded maximum mycelial inhibition with 78.83% followed by L. camara with 59.9% and E. globules with 59.7% inhibition in mycelial growth and B. arundinacea exhibited least mycelial inhibition with 3.7%.

Effect of three different seaweed liquid fertilizers and a chemical liquid fertilizer on the growth and histopathological parameters of Eudrilus eugeniae (Haplotaxida: Eudrilidae)

Author(s):N. Karthick, S. Selvakumar , S. Umamaheswari
Journal: Global Journal of Bio-Science and Biotechnology
Publisher:Society for Science and Nature
Abstract
| Pages: 253-259
The present study has a strong focus on the practical aspects of the effect of Seaweed liquid fertilizers (SLF) and Chemical liquid fertilizer (CLF) on the earthworms. The three different types of seaweeds such as Caulerpa scalpelliformis (Chlorophyta), Cheilosporum spectabile(Rhodophyta), Sargassum wightii (Phaeophyta) were taken. The earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae was reared in a cowdung based medium which was amended with a chemical liquid fertilizer and seaweed liquid fertilizer in two different concentrations such as 0.5% and 1% respectively. During the experiment, the growth rate of the earthworm, pH of the amended medium was analysed. The CLF sprayed earthworms showed decreased growth rate from 0th to 60th day but the SLF sprayed earthworms recorded increased growth rate. Among the three SLF, Sargassum wightii indicated highest growth rate 9.88±0.104 in 1% concentration on the 60th day. The pH value in the CLF amended medium was 8±0.1 in 0.5% concentration and 8.06±0.15 in 1% concentration on 0th day and it went down to 6.4±0.4 and 5.8±0.2 respectively in 0.5% and 1% concentration on 60th day. In SLF amended medium, the pH value slowly moved to neutral level. The histopathological studies were carried out in the gut region of Eudrilus eugeniae. In 0.5% concentration of CLF, the epithelial linings were fused and a chloragogen tissue layer was observed to be granulated whereas in 1% concentration of CLF, extravillous growth in the epithelial layer, pyknotic nuclei were found in many epithelial cells and the size of the chloragogen tissue layer was reduced with the nerve cord affected severely. But in SLF incorporated earthworm, the nerve cord was seen clearly and the chloragogen tissue was well developed and it appeared similar to the control.

Macro-fauna communities in a tropical mangrove forest of zanzibar island, Tanzania

Author(s):Islam S.S. Mchenga, Abdalla I. Ali
Journal: Global Journal of Bio-Science and Biotechnology
Publisher:Society for Science and Nature
Abstract
| Pages: 260-266
The diversity, distribution and abundance of the macro-fauna community were studied in the Nyeke Mangrove forest during 2010 and 2012. Biodiversity results of macro-fauna for the first time have shown that there are 159 species from the study area. Shannon Weiner index of diversity (H) accounted for a high value of 2.4, 1.5 and 1 indicating more diverse community within various habitats for fish, gastropods and crab species respectively. A total of 34 species of fish belonging to 15 families were recorded in all stations. Serranidae were relatively more abundant accounted for 11 and 44% in stations 1 and 2 respectively composed of 5 species belonging to genus Epinephelus. 16 species of crabs were observed belonging to 5 families (Grapsidae, Ocypodidae, Pilumnidae, Eriphiidae and Portunide). The species found were relatively more abundant in the middle (Z2) and lower zone (Z3) Perisesarma ortmanni (45 and 37% respectively) and Perisesarma guttatum (35.1 and 32.7% respectively). The mangrove gastropods mainly composed of three families (Potamididae, Littorinidae and Neritidae) with 6 species Cerithidea decollate, Cerithidea micoptera, Littoraria scabra, Littoraria glabrata, Littoraria pallescens and Nerita lineate. The most abundant gastropod species are L. scabra accounted for 34.7% at station 3. The mangrove associated insects were registered for the first time, with 103 species belonging to 49 families. The most abundant order was Hymenoptera composed of 27 insect species. Based on mangrove zonation, there is significant high number of insects in order of upper > middle > lower mangrove zone. This study intends to contribute for a better and ecological sound management of the mangrove biodiversity resources of Uzi Island.

Testicular enzymes in silkworms exposed to high temperature and RM values of bands in moths of Bombyx mori

Author(s):M. Kalaivani, A. Jebanesan, S. Maragathavalli, B. Annadurai , S. K.Gangwar
Journal: Global Journal of Bio-Science and Biotechnology
Publisher:Society for Science and Nature
Abstract
| Pages: 267-277
The present experiment was conducted in order to find out the effect of testicular enzymes like alanine amino transferase, aminoacid transferase, Glutamatedehydrogenase, Malatedehydrogenase, Succinatedehydrogenase Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, sorbitol dehydrogenase on sperm production. The result showed that succinate and Glutamate dehydrogenase increases the sperm production where as malate dehydrogenase reduces the sperm production and other enzyme shows normal effects. Since alpha esterases and beta esterases were the prime enzymes involved in the copulation. This was evident from the results obtained from PAGE the amount was maximum before mating in male in significant in virgin male. Initially pure Mysore local variety is selected as the male moth and NB4D2 variety of moth was selected as the female. The normal sequence processes like, sperm production, factors responsible for sperm production and hormones responsible for sperm production were experimented. It was found that, the January month is more favorable for male and female moth to produced 800 X 10 2 /1ml of sperm which is counted by haemocytometer and 450 eggs in female at 27C. In the same way during the same month at 75 to 80 RH maximum production of sperm and egg was observed. Bivoltine race NB4D2 the zymogram pattern for alpha esterase of both virgin female and male showed three bands namely one dark, a moderate and a faint type with slight variability in the degree of activity as well in electrophoretic mobility’s. In the material there were three bands of which the cathodral moderate bands found in virgin male was very much reduced though the other two bands remained the same. Slightly reduced activity was evidence the beta esterase activity manifested their bands slightly towards, anodal direction than alpha esterase, where in both the virgin female and male had three bands of which one was moderate followed by a dark and a faint bank. In the mated female also, there were three bands with similar moderate and faint bands but for the dark band which was highly intense with highest activity. In mated male, there is a clear cut reduction from three to two bands, the anodal one of which was a dark banded located behind a reduced moderate band. In the egg - laid female, the moderate band was the same followed by a dark bank with different electrophoretic mobility.

Aerobiology of mulberry fields in Vellore district

Author(s):M. Kalaivani, A. Jebanesan, S. Maragathavalli, B. Annadurai, , S. K.Gangwar
Journal: Global Journal of Bio-Science and Biotechnology
Publisher:Society for Science and Nature
Abstract
| Pages: 278-286
Mulberry which forms the exclusive source of food for commercial silk producing silk worm (Bombyx mori L.) is affected by a number of diseases and pests. The aerobiology of crop field was very limited and much of the fields were to be opened for investigation. It affects the nutrition, growth and cocoon production of silkworm. Hence a detailed investigation was carried out on the aerobiology of mulberry fields in Vellore district. The Vellore district comprises of eight taluks, 14 ranges and 64 subdivisions. Much of the Vellore district land area is cultivated by Mulberry as a cottage industry. It is found that from October to January rainfall was maximum, Vaniyambadi, Tirupattur and Gudiyattam receives maximum rain. The humidity is relatively maximum during the period of October to September 1999. The temperature was maximum from March to June. This helps for the spread and growth of various microflora and airspores in Vellore district environs. From these data, the causative organisms of various diseases of Mulberry were identified. This data will be helpful for the treatment, management of the much useful plant Mulberry in Vellore district.

Therapeutic applications of stingray leather

Author(s):R. Karthikeyan, N.K. Chandra Babu R. Ramesh
Journal: Global Journal of Bio-Science and Biotechnology
Publisher:Society for Science and Nature
Abstract
| Pages: 287-289
In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to use the stingray leather with denticles for the preparation of smart products that find potential therapeutic application involving foot and hand reflexology. A smart footwear, named as massage footwear was developed using stingray leather as insole material to provide acupressure effect to the person wearing the footwear. Foot scan analysis has been carried out to study the effect of foot pressure by massage footwear. We observed that massage (acupressure) effect was stimulated by the denticles of stingray leather. The leather with unique grain structure was also used for the preparation of novel products where the denticles impart better grip to the user and simultaneously stimulating the hand reflex zones during usage.

WHEY PROTEIN HYDROLYSATES: TECHNO-FUNCTIONAL PERSPECTIVE

Author(s):Sumaira H. Khan
Journal: International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology
Publisher:IJABPT
Abstract
| Pages: 1-3
The paper deals with the techno-functional perspective of whey protein hydrolysates. Molecular changes occurring during protein hydrolysis result in modified techno-functional behavior of the hydrolysates compared to the intact protein such as altered solubility, viscosity, sensory properties, and emulsion and foam properties. It plays important role as an antioxidant to help increase body immune system. Whey components have ability to improve the host antioxidant defense and lower oxidant burden which is emerging as a premier contribution to population health. The utilization potential of whey and its derivates in many food products, including dairy products, nutritional beverages and prepared foods is highlighted.

ON THE NOVEL INHIBITORY ACTION OF MUSHROOM EXTRACT OF CORIOLUS VERSICOLOR AND IT’S BIOACTIVITY AGAINST DRUG RESISTANT BACTERIA SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM (MTCC 3241)

Author(s):K.U Zaidi, Richa Jain, Sadaf Quereshi
Journal: International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology
Publisher:IJABPT
Abstract
| Pages: 4-11
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the mushroom extract of Coriolus versicolor on drug resistant strain of S. typhimurium experimental results revealed that hot water ethanol extract and Tris- HCl ethanol extract of C. versicolor were not only effective against drug resistant strain of S.typhimurium (MTCC 3214) but also against other pathogenic microorganisms such as K. pneumoniae, S. typhi, E. coli, S. pyogenes and Aspergillus niger. The extracts exerted their effects on the microorganisms by inhibiting their growth.The optimum temperature and pH conditions for mycelial growth of C. versicolor were found to be 28±1ºC and 5.98 pH respectively. Maximum mycelial growth was observed by employing starch and ammonium sulphate as carbon and nitrogen source and on supplementing the cultivation medium with 20% (v/v) culture filtrate of C. versicolor. The present investigation highlights optimization of culture conditions and determination of antimicrobial spectrum C. versicolor .This indicate that the extracts of C. versicolor is a novel inhibitory source against drug resistant bacteria salmonella typhimurium.

GROWTH OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII FED WITH MANGO SEED KERNEL, BANANA PEEL AND PAPAYA PEEL INCORPORATED FEEDS

Author(s):P. Aarumugam, P. Saravana Bhavan, T. Muralisankar, N. Manickam, V. Srinevasan, S. Radhakrishnan
Journal: International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology
Publisher:IJABPT
Abstract
| Pages: 12-25
The growth promoting potential of fruits wastes, mango seed kernel, banana peel and papaya peel on the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL) was evaluated. Basal diet equated to 35% protein was prepared by using soybean meal, groundnut oilcake, horse gram and wheat flour. Each fruit waste powder was separately incorporated with basal diet at a proportion of 10%. Sunflower oil was used as lipid source. Egg albumin and tapioca flour were used as binding agents. Vitamin B-complex with Vitamin-C was also mixed. Feed without any fruit waste was served as control. M. rosenbergii PL (length: 1.2-1.4 cm; weight: 0.09- 0.13 g) was fed with these feeds for a period of 90 days. Significant improvements in the nutritional indices (survival rate, weight gain, biomass index, specific growth rate and condition factor), concentrations of biochemical constituents (total protein, carbohydrate and lipid), levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin-C and E), content of minerals (Na+ and K+), activities of digestive enzymes (protease, amylase and lipase), and profiles of essential amino acids and fatty acids were recorded in fruits wastes incorporated feeds fed PL when compared with control (P< 0.003 – 0.878). The overall results indicated the fact that mango seed kernel incorporated feed was produced the best performance, followed by better performance of banana peel and good performance of papaya peel. These fruits wastes incorporated feeds enhance digestive enzymes activities and act as appetizer, which in turn enhances food utilization and ultimately yielded better survival and growth of M. rosenbergii PL. Therefore, these fruits wastes have considerable potentials in sustainable development of Macrobrachium culture.
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