Biological Sciences

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A survey and new distributional findings of Caulerpa species in Wandoor, South Andaman, India

Author(s):P. Karthick, R. Mohanraju, Kada Narayana Murthy, Ch. Ramesh , Sumantha Narayana
Journal: Global Journal of Bio-Science and Biotechnology
Publisher:Society for Science and Nature
Abstract
| Pages: 204-206
Caulerpa (Chlorophyta) species inhabit the intertidal and shallow sub tidal region along the coast of Wandoor Marine National Park, South Andaman, India. In a survey conducted during the month of January 2012 to January 2013, we found seven species of Caulerpa, Caulerpa serrulata (Forskal) J. Agardh, C. peltata (Lamouroux), C. racemosa (Forskkal) J. Agardh, C. racemosa var. Lamourouxii (Turner) Weber-van Bosse, C. mexicana var. pluriseriata W.R. Taylor, C. taxifolia (M. Vahl) C. Agardh and C. verticillata J. Agardh. Among these two species C. racemosa var. Lamourouxii (Turner) Weber-van Bosse and C. mexicana var. pluriseriata W.R. Taylor, are found to be a new distributional records for these Islands as well as for the Indian waters. This is the first time these species are being reported. These were found to be observed during the month of October 2012.

Haematological and serum profile of growing rabbits fed varying levels of crude oil contaminated feed O. S.

Author(s):O. S. George , B.T. Sese
Journal: Global Journal of Bio-Science and Biotechnology
Publisher:Society for Science and Nature
Abstract
| Pages: 207-210
Thirty (30) 6-7 weeks old Chinchilla rabbits weighing between 430 – 460 were used in a Complete Randomized Design to evaluate the effect of crude oil contaminated feed on the haematological and serum profile of growing rabbits. Graded levels 0 ml, 4 ml,8 ml, 12 ml and 16 ml crude oil were incorporated in 1kg of feed in treatment TI, TII, TIII, TIV and TV respectively with 6 replicates per treatment, one animal per replicate in a study that lasted for 12 weeks. Concentrate feed with iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric were formulated for the study. After 12 weeks of rearing, four rabbits were randomly selected from each treatment for blood samples. Result obtained showed increased serum concentration which suggest decreased glomerular filtration rate. The results from this study also demonstrated that crude oil toxicity caused anaemia.

Genetic divergence studies for fodder quality attributes in open pollinated families of Bauhinia variegata Linn

Author(s):R. K. Anand , Santosh Kumar A. Huse
Journal: Global Journal of Bio-Science and Biotechnology
Publisher:Society for Science and Nature
Abstract
| Pages: 211-214
Bauhinia variegata (Kachnar) is an important medium size fodder tree species of hilly region on which farmers depends during the lean period when grasses are dry, less digestible and unpalatable. Its leaves are highly nutritious and palatable. But farmers are lacking with genotypically superior genotypes which can produce nutritious fodder. Therefore, selection and breeding of the species is essential to produce better offspring which can augment the farmers demand. Present study was conducted to assess the magnitude of genetic divergence in Bauhinia variegata. Seed was collected from 48 open pollinated (plus trees) families and sown in nursery under randomized complete block design. After 16 month growth, leaves sample were collected and analyzed for proximate composition. On the basis of this data genetic divergence was studied with the help of non hierarchical Euclidean cluster analysis. All the families were grouped in to the eight clusters with the highest number of families falling under cluster II. Maximum and minimum intra cluster distance was observed for cluster IV(1.993) and II (1.474), respectively. Whereas, maximum inter cluster distance was observed between cluster VI and III (5.528). Leaf fresh weight (34.20%) and leaf dry weight (25.69 %) contributed the highest towards total divergence. Among the eight clusters formed, cluster VI and VIII showed maximum cluster mean values for most of proximate principles. Therefore, on the basis of present findings it is suggested that the crossing between families of cluster VI and III will results in wide range of variation in subsequent generation.

Bioremediation of industrial effluents of Asansol Durgapur industrial zone and its effect on DNA

Author(s):Aamir Javed, Anup Baranwal, Ishwarya.M.S, Firoz Ahmed, Md.Hidayatullah
Journal: Global Journal of Bio-Science and Biotechnology
Publisher:Society for Science and Nature
Abstract
| Pages: 215-226
The detailed and core study is been performed on the waste water discharged by various industries in Asansol Durgapur Industrial zone into River Damodar. In this study we have tried to inspect what are the Microbiological and chemical waste which is been discarded in the river by the Steel and Iron Industries, Mining and Paper and pulp mills .Over all our main objective is to study the and characterize the microbes present in the sample of wastewater, secondaly to cram the role of isolated microorganisms from waste water (Durgapur Industrial Area) in waste degradation and also to study its role of the microorganisms from Durgapur industrial wastewater in COD reduction and finally check the damage caused to the synthetic DNA by the industrial waste water.Finally a large number of industrial waste has been noticed example (a) Steel and Iron Industries- as Benzene, Napthalene, Anthracene, Cyanide, Ammonia, Phenol, and Cresol,(b) Mining - Acid-mine drainage (AMD) result from the exposure of sulfide minerals, particularly pyritic and pyrrhotitic minerals and (c) Paper and pulp mills- Sulphuric acids ,dark tans ,slime , piths, and phenolic compounds and moreover bleaching agents effluents which are toxic to aquatic flora and fauna and exhibit a strong mutagenic effect. Finally the Durgapur Industrial Waste Water shows a Color: Light brown, . pH: (7.5+0.2) to (7.5-0.2)., conductivity: 7.77 S/m. It is presumed to have a large amount of solids as indicated by its conductivity value. It contains large amount of phenol and cyanides. Colony characteristics and gram staining shows Negative (Bacillus) and Positive (Coccus). However there is no fungal growth pattern obserevd. It also was observed that in the INDOLE test, all the isolated microorganisms showed negative result indicating that tryptophan was utilized as a nutrient source. COD experiment was done by both the methods i.e. Open reflux method and COD kit technique. But the results were not satisfactory and lastly the Effect of waste water on synthetic DNA was observed as change in the optical density of the Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is been noticed ,which perhaps can be due to the different aromatic ,toxic ,heavy metals , phenolic compounds present in the water. However one more reason can also be Hypothesized, which can be due to some of the very specific compounds which shows a robust property of a Epigenetic, which means addition of methyl group directly to the nucleotides which increases the OD 260 nm of the DNA.Control DNA (100 microgram/ml) OD @260 nm = 0.256 & Treated DNA OD @260nm = 0.957

Relationship between physiochemical parameters and algal biodiversity of Bhima River

Author(s):SAKDEO, B. M.
Journal: Global Journal of Bio-Science and Biotechnology
Publisher:Society for Science and Nature
Abstract
| Pages: 227-229
Bhima River, which is situated at the boundary of Daund, Pune District of Maharashtra . The Present investigation was undertaken to study of physio-chemical characteristics of Bhima River with respect to the algal production.Bhima river are highly polluted due to discharge of domestic and industrial waste . The physiochemical aspects of water pollution of Bhima river such as Temperature, PH, Total Alkalinity , Dissolved oxygen ,Biological Oxygen Demand , Chamical Oxygen Demand were analyzed. The pollution status of river is affecting aquatic Life.

Ochratoxin A and Citrinin induced pathomorphological changes in broiler chicken

Author(s):G. M. Jayaramu, M. L. Satyanarayana, P. Ravikumar, V. T. Shilpa, H. D. Narayanaswamy , Suguna Rao
Journal: Global Journal of Bio-Science and Biotechnology
Publisher:Society for Science and Nature
Abstract
| Pages: 230-234
The study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of feeding ochratoxin A and citrinin either alone or in combination in broiler chicken. Two hundred broiler chicks were divided into four groups of 50 chicks each with the following treatment viz. Control diet, (group I), OA 1 ppm, (group II), CTN 12.5 ppm (group III) and combination 1 ppm OA plus 12.5 ppm CTN (group IV) up to 35 days of the trial. The experimental and the control birds were sequentially sacrificed and examined at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35th day of the experiment. On post-mortem examination grossly, the toxin fed birds showed congestion, enlargement, pallor or yellowish discoloration of liver with distended gall bladder, swollen and congested kidneys. In addition, congestion of heart with prominent vasculature, pale, dehydrated and shrunken skeletal muscles, presence of small quantity of semisolid ingesta with slight mucous in crop and proventriculous, dry and shrunken gizzard, congested appearance of intestine with small quantity of mucous and congested pancreas was observed in all the toxin fed groups throughout the period of experimentation. Microscopically degenerative changes in hepatocytes, periportal fibrosis, periductular mononuclear cell infiltration, fatty degeneration, focal necrosis in the liver, degeneration and necrotic changes in the tubular epithelial cells in kidneys, myocardial degeneration, hyaline degeneration of muscle, mucosal hyperplasia of crop, proventriculitis, ventriculitis, catarrhal enteritis, pancreatitis, lymphoid depletion in the spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus were the prominent lesions observed when both the toxins were fed to birds from second to fifth week of age. Severity of these lesions was found to be enhanced and suggested the additive or synergistic effect of these toxins in the broiler chicken.

Screening of antibacterial activity of flavonoid fractions of Momordica dioica, Roxb

Author(s):J. A. Arekar, A. R. Arekar , G. T. Paratkar
Journal: Global Journal of Bio-Science and Biotechnology
Publisher:Society for Science and Nature
Abstract
| Pages: 235-237
In vivo and in vitro plant extracts of Momordica dioica Roxb. (Cucurbitaceae) were tested against a range of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. In vitro shoot cultures were obtained from seed explants of M. dioica on MS basal medium supplemented with 8.88 ï­M BA. In vitro callus culture was obtained from leaf explant of M. dioica on MS basal medium supplemented with 8.88 ï­M BA and 1.08 ï­M NAA. The Ethyl Acetate fractions of Methanolic extracts of in vivo and in vitro plant material of M. dioica showed significant antibacterial sensitive Activity.

Growth and economic performance of growing rabbits fed two varieties of sorghum as replacement for maize in a hot tropical environment

Author(s):J. U. Igwebuike, C. I. Medugu, A.O. Raji, I. Bature
Journal: Global Journal of Bio-Science and Biotechnology
Publisher:Society for Science and Nature
Abstract
| Pages: 238-242
A study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary replacement of maize with varieties of sorghum on the growth and economic performance of growing rabbits in a 56 – day feeding trial. Twenty-five (25) growing rabbits weighing averagely 569.4 g were randomly allocated to five (5) experimental diets in which the control, T1, contained (100% maize), T2 (50% maize and 50% “Chakalere†sorghum), T3 (100% “Chakalere†sorghum), T4 (50% maize and 50% “Jigare†sorghum) and T5 (100% “Jigare†sorghum). The maize and sorghum served as the major energy sources in the diets. The sorghum varieties used were low tannin sorghum (“Chakalereâ€) and high tannin sorghum (“Jigareâ€). The design of the experiment is randomized complete block design. Each treatment consisted of 5 rabbits, replicated 5 times with one rabbit per replicate. Feed and clean drinking water were provided ad libitum. Routine management practices were strictly adhered to during the experiments. Data collected were the growth performance (feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio) and economics of production. The results showed that there is significant difference (p<0.05) in the feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio in all the treatment groups. Treatment 4 (50% “Jigare†and 50% maize) consumed more feed than the rest of the treatments. The highest daily weight gain (15.54 g) was observed in treatment 4 (50% “Jigare†and 50% maize) and the lowest (8.86 g) was observed in T1 (maize – based diet). Poor feed conversion ratio (FCR) value (8.29) was observed in T2 (50% “Chakalere†sorghum and 50% maize). The best value (4.62) was obtained in T4 (50% “Jigare†and 50% maize). The results, however, indicated that the cost per kg feed and cost of feed per unit weight gain were lowest in “Jigare†followed by “Chakalere†sorghum and maize – based diets respectively. This suggests that the replacement of maize by “Chakalere†(low tannin sorghum) or “Jigare†(high tannin sorghum) in the diets of growing rabbits was economical and cost effective.

Preliminary phytochemicals, pharmacognostic evaluation and antimicrobial activity of Moringa concanensis nimmoleaf

Author(s):V. Balamurugan , V. Balakrishnan
Journal: Global Journal of Bio-Science and Biotechnology
Publisher:Society for Science and Nature
Abstract
| Pages: 243-247
The plant species Moringa concanensis Nimmo is a tree belongs to the family Moringaceae. The plant is locally termed as Kattumurungai by tribal peoples of Nilgiris hill in the region of Tamil Nadu state. In view of its medicinal importance and taxonomic confusion, pharmacognostic studies, microscopical structure, morphological characteristics, chemical analysis and numerical values in epidermal studies was carried out to supplement the necessary information for the systematic identification and authentication of this plant, as per WHO guidelines. Pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical and antimicrobial investigations of the plant were carried out and reported.
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