Biological Sciences

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Role of sucrose and season on rapid In Vitro regeneration for two Stevia genotypes

Author(s):Sharuti Rathore, Narender Singh, S.K. Singh
Journal: Global Journal of Bio-Science and Biotechnology
Publisher:Society for Science and Nature
Abstract
| Pages: 150-153
In order to develop a protocol for high efficiency in vitro regeneration of two cultivars of stevia ‘ CIM madhu’ and ‘CIM mithi’ respectively, the influence of season on the rate of multiplication was investigated in shoot cultures on Murashige and Skoog (MS) media, supplemented with different combinations of growth regulators. In vitro performance of explants indicated a positive correlation between shoot proliferation and season in both genotypes of stevia. The mean number of shoots formed per explant was higher when ‘CIM madhu’ and ‘CIM mithi’ cultivars were cultured on MS media with 4% sucrose and Organics (MS)x2 , in the active growing season. In both cultivars, the mean number of shoots formed per explant was slightly higher when sub-cultured on MS medium, in the month of January, April and August, which were proven to be the most effective season.

Diversity and distribution of interitdal mollusca at Saurashtra coast of Arabian Sea, India

Author(s):Ashokkumar Vaghela, Poonam Bhadja , Rahul Kundu
Journal: Global Journal of Bio-Science and Biotechnology
Publisher:Society for Science and Nature
Abstract
| Pages: 154-158
This communication reports the diversity and population ecology of mollusca at Saurashtra coast off the Arabian Sea during August 2008 to July 2009. The study was conducted at Mangrol coast to evaluate the present status of the intertidal mollusca. A total of 28 species belonging to 19 families representing 4 different classes were recorded. Results showed that major molluscan population belonged to class gastropoda with dominating species like Cellana radiata, Nerita albicella, Turbo coronetus, Turbo intercostalis, Trochus radiates and Rhinoclavis sinensis. The abundance values of Turbo coronetus recorded maximum in upper littoral zone but during post-monsoon season high values were observed in middle littoral zone. Turbo intercostalis was the most abundant species and was present throughout the year. Middle and lower littoral zone had high abundance values than the upper littoral zone and showed variations in seasonal variations.

The impact of white mangrove leaves (Langucularia racemosa) as feed additiveon performance characteristics of adult rabbits

Author(s):A.M. Yahaya , O.S. George
Journal: Global Journal of Bio-Science and Biotechnology
Publisher:Society for Science and Nature
Abstract
| Pages: 159-162
A research work was carried out to determine the additive effect of (Langucularia racemosa) white mangrove leaves on performance characteristics of adult rabbits. A total of forty eight (48) rabbits of equal ratio of bucks and does were used in a completely randomized designed of four treatment groups A, B, C, and D of 12 rabbits per treatment. Each treatment was replicated thrice with four rabbits of (2 bucks and 2 does) per replicate. Results showed that significant differences (P<0.05) existed in the performance characteristic It was therefore concluded that (Langucularia racemosa) white mangrove leaves can be used as an additive in rabbits production at the inclusion level of 90g/kg of feed without causing any health challenge in the rabbits.

Histopathological changes in liver of Indian flying barb, Esomus danricus (Hamilton-Buchanan), exposed to copper

Author(s):Suchismita Das, Arabinda Das , Abhik Gupta
Journal: Global Journal of Bio-Science and Biotechnology
Publisher:Society for Science and Nature
Abstract
| Pages: 163-166
Indian flying barb, Esomus danricus, a teleost fish commonly inhabiting fresh waters of northern India, was exposed to three sublethal doses of 0.005, 0.0025 and 0.001 μgl-1 Cu for 28 days and the histological sections of liver, stained by haematoxylin-eosin, were observed under light microscope. Liver showed several reactions including necrosis, fat filled cytoplasm/ foamy hepatocyte cytoplasm, lymphocytic infiltration, portal triaditis and extensive degeneration of cytoplasm. Higher doses of exposure had more severe effects on the liver.

Growth performance and nutrient digestibility of growing rabbits fed two varieties of sorghum as replacement for maize as energy source in tropical environment

Author(s):J. U. Igwebuike, C. I.Medugu, I. D. Kwari, & A. Dauda
Journal: Global Journal of Bio-Science and Biotechnology
Publisher:Society for Science and Nature
Abstract
| Pages: 167-172
Twenty-five (25) mixed sex cross breeds (New Zealand White x Dutch) of rabbits aged 5 to 7 weeks old with average initial live weight of 569.4 g to 581 g were used in this study to evaluate the effect of replacing maize with two varieties of sorghum (“Chakalere†and “Jigareâ€) on the performance and nutrient digestibility of growing rabbits. The rabbits were assigned to five (5) experimental diets designated as treatment 1 (100% maize and 0% sorghum), 2 (50% maize and 50% “Chakalere†sorghum), 3 (100% “Chakalere†sorghum), 4 (50% maize and 50% Jigare†sorghum) and 5 (100% “Jigare†sorghum) which were replicated five (5) times with one (1) rabbit per replicate in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). “Chakalere†is the low-tannin sorghum while “Jigare†is the high tannin sorghum. The rabbits were fed with the experimental diets and clean drinking water ad libitum for experimental period of eight weeks (56 days). The final live weight were not significantly different (p>0.05) in all the treatment groups. The mean daily feed intake and daily weight gain were statistically different (p<0.05) and higher in treatments 3, 4 and 5 than the other treatments. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) were significantly better (p<0.05) in treatments 4 and 5 than the other treatments. Digestibility of nutrients showed significant difference (p<0.05) in all the treatments. Dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre and ether extract digestibility were superior in treatment 5 (100% Jigare) than the other treatments while treatments 1 and 3 had better ash digestibility. Results obtained from this study indicates that “Chakalere†and “Jigare†sorghum varieties can be used to replace 100% of maize in the diet of growing rabbits without adverse effect on performance and nutrient digestibility.

Potential therapeutic pH resistive salmonella phages from tropical sewage waters

Author(s):H. Sridhar, M. Umavanitha , S. Umamaheswari
Journal: Global Journal of Bio-Science and Biotechnology
Publisher:Society for Science and Nature
Abstract
| Pages: 173-179
Bacteriophages are seen as the alterative for the antibiotics in the era of antibiotic resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria. Two lytic bacteriophage infecting Salmonella typhi (STP A and STP B) was isolated from sewage samples by enrichment method. Both the phage types were found to be chloroform resistant. The phage purification had been carried by serial sub culturing of the specific type of the plaques appeared in the crude lysate up to the 10th passage. Phage concentration in the purified lysate was 2x108 PFU/ml for Phage STP A and the concentration of the Phage STP B was 7x107 PFU/ml. The phage was purified by repeated infecting process in Salmonella typhi and concentrated using Polyethylene glycol 8000. Both the phages were concentrated upto the order of 1012. The phages STP A & STP B were able to infect Salmonella typhi and other Salmonella sp. occurred in the same habitat. But they were not of potential candidate to infect other species apart from their host species. They were unable to induce a lytic infection even against the E.coli, Shigella isolate 1 and E.coli DH5α. The biological parameters of phage infection were analyzed. Both the phages were highly stable in pH conditions ranging from pH 4 to 10 and stable only upto 45°C.

Detection of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 in rhizosphere and rhizosplane of (Zea mays) maize plants using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry

Author(s):K. Rajkumar, G. Venkateswaran , R. Malathi
Journal: Global Journal of Bio-Science and Biotechnology
Publisher:Society for Science and Nature
Abstract
| Pages: 180-186
An easy method for the determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in rhizosphere and rhizosplane of zea mays by LC coupled to mass spectrometry had been developed. Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in maize plants by LC coupled to mass spectrometry had been developed. Aflatoxins were extracted with a mixture of methanol and water and then it was purified by solid – phase clean – up using a polymeric sorbent. The eluted extracts were injected into the chromatographic system using a reverse – phase C18 short column with an isocratic mobile phase composed of methanol-water (30:70). A single quadruple mass spectrometry using an electro spray ionization source operating in the positive mode was used to detect aflatoxins. The method permits the detection of Aflatoxins with a detection limit of 0.01-14.90μg/g.

In- vitro conservation of Bacopa monnieri An endangered medicinal plant

Author(s):Sharuti Rathore , Narender Singh
Journal: Global Journal of Bio-Science and Biotechnology
Publisher:Society for Science and Nature
Abstract
| Pages: 187-192
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that 80% of the population of developing countries relies on traditional medicines, mostly plant drugs, for their primary health care needs. Plants provide the predominant ingredients of medicines in most medical traditions. While the demand for medicinal plants is growing, some of them are increasingly being threatened in their natural habitat. Plants are endangered by a combination of factors: over-collecting, unsuitable agriculture and forestry practices, urbanization, pollution, habitat destruction, fragmentation and degradation, spread of invasive alien species. Around 70% of India’s medicinal plants are found in tropical areas mostly in the various forest types spread across the Western and Eastern ghats, the Vindhyas, Chotta Nagpur plateau, Aravalis & Himalayas. Although less the 30% of the medicinal plants are found in the temperate and alpine areas and higher altitudes they include species of high medicinal value. Several medicinal plants are already threatened, rare, or endangered. Plant tissue culture is an emerging tool for the propagation and conservation of some economically important crops that are listed as endangered, rare and threatened. This review aims to summarize the in vitro technique for conservation of Bacopa monnieri an important medicinal plant which is listed as endangered medicinal plant. Bacopa is a great neurotonic, immuno-modulator, adaptogen, tranquilizing, memory and learning enhancing, cerebral activator.

Application of automated QUAL2Kw for water quality modeling in the river Karanja, India

Author(s):Basappa. B. Kori, T.Shashidhar , Shashikanth Mise
Journal: Global Journal of Bio-Science and Biotechnology
Publisher:Society for Science and Nature
Abstract
| Pages: 193-203
The river Karanja, a major drinking water source for the Bhalki municipality is under threat by the disposal of effluents from the industries such as Sugar, Paper and distilleries. Water samples from this river were collected on hourly basis for two seasons at different locations along the river and their quality was assessed. As per the criteria specified by Central Pollution Control Board of India, the present water quality of the river is not acceptable as drinking water source. To study the effect of effluent disposal on this river, one dimensional steady-state stream water quality model was developed using QUAL2Kw. In this model pre-monsoon data is used for calibration and post monsoon data for validation. RMSE of calibrated and validation data using genetic algorithms showed nearly the same values for pH, alkalinity and biochemical oxygen demand(i.e., 2.50%, 2.20%; 9.8%, 10.00%; and 19.60%, 24.60% respectively), and the RMSE difference was more for dissolved oxygen, nitrate nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen (i.e., 5.5%, 14.06%; 57.6%, 65.3%; and 27.0%, 39.6%), these differences can be attributed to changes in environmental conditions between the two periods. From the sensitivity analysis, it was observed that the model is sensitive for temperature, bottom width, discharge and biochemical oxygen demand. Simulations were carried out for several scenarios such as bottom algae, head water release, shade and temperature under dry weather flow condition. All these profile did not meet the requirement of minimum DO concentration, to get it bottom algae is to be reduced to 75%, head water BOD is to be reduced to 8mg/L, and shade is to be increased up to 30% therefore different suitable methods are suggested for improving water quality.
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