Biological Sciences

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Use of Genetically Altered Stem Cells for the Treatment of Huntington’s Disease

Author(s):Andrew T. Crane -- Julien Rossignol -- Gary L. Dunbar
Journal: Brain Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 202-219
Transplantation of stem cells for the treatment of Huntington’s disease (HD) garnered much attention prior to the turn of the century. Several studies using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have indicated that these cells have enormous therapeutic potential in HD and other disorders. Advantages of using MSCs for cell therapies include their ease of isolation, rapid propagation in culture, and favorable immunomodulatory profiles. However, the lack of consistent neuronal differentiation of transplanted MSCs has limited their therapeutic efficacy to slowing the progression of HD-like symptoms in animal models of HD. The use of MSCs which have been genetically altered to overexpress brain derived neurotrophic factor to enhance support of surviving cells in a rodent model of HD provides proof-of-principle that these cells may provide such prophylactic benefits. New techniques that may prove useful for cell replacement therapies in HD include the use of genetically altering fate-restricted cells to produce induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). These iPSCs appear to have certain advantages over the use of embryonic stem cells, including being readily available, easy to obtain, less evidence of tumor formation, and a reduced immune response following their transplantation. Recently, transplants of iPSCs have shown to differentiate into region-specific neurons in an animal model of HD. The overall successes of using genetically altered stem cells for reducing neuropathological and behavioral deficits in rodent models of HD suggest that these approaches have considerable potential for clinical use. However, the choice of what type of genetically altered stem cell to use for transplantation is dependent on the stage of HD and whether the end-goal is preserving endogenous neurons in early-stage HD, or replacing the lost neurons in late-stage HD. This review will discuss the current state of stem cell technology for treating the different stages of HD and possible future directions for stem-cell therapy in HD.

Effect of Different Energy Drinks on Liver and Heart Enzymes in Rats

Author(s):Wadiah S. Backer --- Hanadi M. Baeissa 
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 1-11
Eighteen-year-old Irish athlete was died as a result of playing a basketball game after consuming four cans of red bull in 2000. France, Denmark and Norway have banned red bull. Britain issued a warning against red bull use by pregnant women and children in 2001. There was very limited evidence that the consumption of energy drinks have any effect on the enzymes of our body. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of six different types of energy drinks (Red Bull, Power Horse, Bison, Bugzy, Boom Boom, and Code Red) on liver and heart enzymes. One hundred forty seven male Wister rats were divided into seven groups in each group 21 rats. The first group is as control drinking water. The other six groups received orally the drink (1.8 ml/250 g/day)daily by gavage for 30 days. After 10, 20, and 30 days, the blood samples were collected from all groups to determined liver and heart enzymes. Inliver, the results showed a significant decrease of alanine aminotransferase concentration by drinking Bison, Bugzy, Boom Boom and Code Red groups. All energy drinking groups showed a significant decrease in the concentration of aspartate aminotransferase except in Red Bull group. Also, they showed decrease of alkaline phosphatase concentration except in Bison group. In heart, the results showed that creatine kinase concentration decreased significantly by all energy drinking groups except Red Bull and Bugzy. All energy drinking groups showed a significant decrease in the creatine kinase-MB concentration except in Bugzy group. As conclusions, most energy drinks may cause a disorder in liver and heart which effect the production of their enzymes.

Degradation of the Organophosphorus Insecticide Diazinon by Soil Bacterial Isolate

Author(s):M. Mahiudddin --- A. N. M.  Fakhruddin --- Abdullah-Al-Mahin --- M. A. Z. Chowdhury --- M. A. Rahman --- M. K. Alam 
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 12-23
Microorganisms isolated from soil sample using enrichment culture technique have been grown in the minimal growth media where diazinon served as a sole carbon source. Total three bacterial strains were screened and identified by morphological and biochemical studies as Pseudomonas peli, Burkholderia caryophylli and Brevundimonas diminuta and designated as Pseudomonas peli BG1, Burkholderia caryophylli BG4 and Brevundimonas diminuta PD6, respectively. All these isolates were able to completely degrade 20 mg/l diazinon in mineral salt medium (MSM) as a sole carbon source within 12 days of incubation. The bacterial growth and diazinon degradation were accelerated by these isolates when MSM supplemented with 0.5 % (w/v) glucose as an additional carbon source. The maximum degradation rate by the isolates BG1, BG4 and PD6 were 3.350, 4.265 and 3.140 mg/l/d, respectively. The bacterial growth and diazinon degradation rates were increased by these three isolates when MSM supplemented with 0.5 % (w/v) glucose as an additional carbon source. The maximum degradation rates were 4.556, 5.367 and 5.885 mg/l/d for the isolates BG1, BG4 and PD6, respectively in the presence of glucose. pH of the growth medium decreased more sharply in presence of glucose as a consequence of microbial metabolism of glucose. The results of this study suggested a correlation among diazinon degradation, microbial growth and pH in MSM with or without glucose during diazinon degradation studies.

Preparation of A Poly (Vinylalcohol) (PVA)/Peat/Organoclay /Kno3 Composite Bead as Biofilter Material for Biofiltration of Volatile Organic Compounds

Author(s):Wu-Chung Chan --- Hong-Siou Guo 
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 24-31
In this study, a PVA/peat/organoclay/KNO3 spherical composite bead was prepared and was proved suitable as a biofilter material. This composite bead was a porous spherical particle with a diameter of 3.0-5.0 mm, a density of 1.23 g/cm3 and a porosity of about 50%. The organoclay was prepared by hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (HDTMA) exchanged clay. The biochemical kinetic behaviors of n-butyl acetate in the spherical PVA/peat/HDTMA-clay/KNO3 composite bead biofilter (Clay biofilter) and PVA/peat/granular activated carbon (GAC)/ KNO3 spherical composite bead biofilter (GAC biofilter) were investigated. The values of half-saturation constant Ks for Clay biofilter and GAC biofilter were 69.86 and 38.49 ppm, respectively. The values of maximum reaction rate Vm for Clay  biofilter and GAC biofilter were 23.77 and 22.97 ppm/s, respectively. Diffusion-limited Zero-order kinetic was regarded as the most adequate biochemical reaction model. The microbial growth rate kg and biochemical reaction rate kd for two biofilters were inhibited at higher inlet concentration. The degree of inhibitive effect was more pronounced in the GAC biofilter in microbial growth process and that was almost the same in two biofilters in the biochemical reaction process. The maximum elimination capacity for Clay biofilter and GAC biofilter was 139.10 and 154.67 g-C/h-m3 bed volume, respectively. The PVA/peat/HDTMA-clay/KNO3 composite bead was suitable as a biofilter material.

Bioremediation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) Polluted Soil Using Microorganisms Found in Organic Wastes

Author(s):Okwute Ojonoma L. --- Ijah Udeme J.J. 
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 32-46
The aim of this study was to demonstrate the use of chicken droppings and cow dung in the amendment of soil polluted with palm oil mill effluent (POME) in bioremediation. Soil polluted with 20 % raw (POME) in the laboratory was amended with different concentrations of chicken droppings, cow dung and a combination of the wastes (10 %, 20 % and 30 %). Isolation, characterization and identification of microorganisms were carried out and compared over time with respect to the different concentrations. Gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GCMS) analysis of extracts of POME polluted and amended soil indicated a reduction in the number of long chain hydrocarbons (C13-C44) in POME polluted soil to C8-C21 in amended soil. This was attributed to the presence of microorganisms of the genera Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Proteus, Micrococcus, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Paecilomyces and Candida in significant numbers throughout the period of analysis. However, a combination of the two organic wastes at 20 % concentration was most effective in this reduction. The implication of these findings is that the bacteria, mould and yeast isolates found in these organic wastes can be useful in rehabilitation of POME polluted soil and possibly other oil polluted sites. 

Internal Validation of A Six Non-Codis Ministr Loci (D1s1627, D3s4529, D5s2500, D6s1017, D8s1115 And D9s2157) System

Author(s):Zainonesa Abrahams-October --- Brendon Pearce --- Mongi Benjeddou 
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 47-57
Non-CODIS (NC) miniSTR genotyping systems were developed to produce smaller amplicons by moving the primers as close as possible to the repeat region of interest.  These systems are valuable when profiling degraded or compromised DNA samples.  This study details the internal validation for a six NC miniSTR system comprised of the loci: D1S1627, D3S4529, D5S2500, D6S1017, D8S1115 and D9S2157.  These loci demonstrated the ability to produce consistent, accurate and precise genotype profiles for low concentrations of template DNA.  Template DNA concentrations as low as 50pg were successfully amplified and typed.  Differentiation of major and minor components were easily identifiable in miniplex 1, but in miniplex 2 complete profiles for each contributor was only observed from ratios ≤1:4.  This internal validation allowed for the determination of the reliability as well as the limitations of this NC miniSTR genotyping system.   

Ligninolytic Enzymes Activities of Pleurotus Sapidus P969 during Vegetative Growth and Fruit Development on Sugarcane Residues-Based Substrates

Author(s):Ferdinandi Patrick --- Godliving Yesusaa Sungusia Mtui --- Anthony Manoni Mshandete --- Amelia Kajumulo Kivaisi 
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 58-71
Ligninolytic enzyme activities of extracts obtained from sugarcane residues-based substrates during solid-state fermentation (SSF) by Pleurotus sapidus P969 at mycelia colonization; primordial formation; harvesting and postharvest stages were investigated. SFF was performed in plastic bags using substrates formulated by mixing various proportions known weights of sugarcane bagasse (SB) and sugarcane tops (ST) on dry weight basis. Laccase, manganese peroxidase (MnP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP) activities in extracts of the substrates were determined using standard methods. The highest laccase activities reached were 43.94 U g-1 wet spent mushroom substrate (SMS) in SB/ST (60:40) mixed substrate on the first pinhead appearance (1st P.A). The highest manganese peroxidase activities observed were 11.90 U g-1 wet SMS in SB/ST (20:80) mixed substrate on the 1st P.A. The highest lignin peroxidase activities observed were 8.71 U g-1 wet SMS in SB/ST (20:80) mixed substrate after full substrate colonization (A.C). Thus, the results indicate enormous potential of P.sapidus for industrial production of ligninolytic enzymes on very low cost substrates through SSF. The study further demonstrates the possibility of production of specific ligninolytic enzymes by oyster mushrooms through tailor making the substrates using sugar cane-based residues. 

Our First Diet After Birth is Breast Milk, But the Vital Lipids in Whole Milk are Now Destroyed by Homogenization

Author(s):Thomas Tallberg M.D 
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 72-84
Lipidomics is the function of billions of vital lipid molecules forming our brain and spinal cord. In the serum of cancer patients there could transiently appear lipids stemming from the central nervous system (CNS), following herpes virus infections. Dietary substitution utilizing CNS-lipid precursors as in whole milk could compensate this lipid depletion.Oral supplementation led to physiologic therapeutic effects. Lipidomics, depicts studies on neurobiology describing the clinical function of billions of vital lipids contained in our brain and spinal cord, articulated as a harmonious synaptogenesis. The aim is to relate certain clinical features and expressions of this immensely complex panel of psychodynamic functions regulated by this multifaceted brain-lipid network. Our daily mental function and stress caused by excessive exercise consumes certain of these vital CNS-lipid molecules. Healthy reconstruction of this physiologic consumption of CNS-lipids proceeds during our sleep providing that our serum contains vital CNS-lipid precursor components supplied via our diet containing whole milk in which the cream (lipoprotein) is not destroyed by homogenisation. A combined dietary ingestion of whole milk together with prion-free CNS-lipids can restore normal cell induction, improve the motor, and mental balance of patients.   

Bio N Fertilization on Corn

Author(s):Clemencia L. Sumagaysay 
Journal: The International Journal of Biotechnology
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 85-90
This study was conducted to evaluate the production of corn as affected by Bio – N inoculant with the different levels of fertilizers fertilization at Maglambing Tagbina, Surigao del Sur during wet/rainy season. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with five (5) treatments and three (3) replications was applied. The treatments were: T1 Bio – N inoculant,   T2 Bio – N + Farmer’s Practice, T3 Bio N + ½ Recommended Rate (RR), T4 Bio N + Recommended Rate (RR) + Organic Fertilizer, T 5 Bio N + Recommended Rate (RR). Results showed that treatment 3 or the application of Bio –N combined with half of the recommended rate of fertilizers obtained a significant result in terms of ear length, ear weight and grain yield of corn. Treatment 3 Bio – N + ½ Recommended Rate of fertilizer recorded the most promising combination of fertilizer as it optimized corn production during wet/rainy season. 
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