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Polymers in Pharmacy: Their Versatile Applications

Author(s):Dilipkumar Pal, Tanmoy De, Arijit Baral
Journal: PHARMANEST - An International Journal of Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences
Publisher:Pharmaceutical Education and Research Society
Abstract
| Pages: 54-65
Polymers have been used as a main tool in conventional dosage forms and controlled drug delivery systems to control the drug release rate from the formulations. In drug delivery polymers have been chosen because polymers offer unique properties which have not been present in other materials. Development in polymer science has led to the advances of several novel drug-delivery systems. A proper surface and bulk properties is considered in the designing of polymers for various drug-delivery applications. There are various newer technological development include drug modification by chemical means, career based drug delivery and drug entrapment in polymeric matrices or within pumps that are placed in desired bodily compartments. These technical developments in drug delivery/targeting approaches improve the efficacy of drug therapy thereby improve human health. Polymer chemists and chemical engineers, pharmaceutical scientists are engaged in bringing out design predictable, controlled delivery of bioactive agents. In biomedical application, biodegradable polymers have been widely used because of their known biocompatibility and biodegradability. In the biomedical area, polymers are generally used as implants and are expected to perform long term service. These improvements contribute to make medical treatment more efficient and to minimize side effects and other types of inconveniences for patients.

A Novel Review on Anti-Intestinal Proton Pump Inhibitor: Rabeprazole

Author(s):M. Madan Mohan Reddy, D. Mahidhar Reddy, K. Jyothirmai, P.Rambabu, E. Anka Rao, S.Revathi, B.Dayasagar
Journal: PHARMANEST - An International Journal of Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences
Publisher:Pharmaceutical Education and Research Society
Abstract
| Pages: 66-75
Rabeprazole a newly developed benzimidazole proton pump inhibitor (PPIs) with antisecretory properties. PPIs block gastric acid secretion from the gastric parietal cells. The subsequent rise in gastric pH relieves symptoms and aids healing in GORD and peptic ulcer disease. Rabeprazole appears to be more effective than Ranitidine and as effective as omeprazole for healing gastric and duodenal ulcers, and GORD. Rabeprazole has a limited license compared to omeprazole and lansoprazole. There is no clinical advantage to be gained by changing from an existing PPI to Rabeprazole.

Antistress and Antioxidant Activity of Flower of Couroupita Guianensis in Rats

Author(s):Vinod H Gupta, Archana R Juvekar*
Journal: PHARMANEST - An International Journal of Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences
Publisher:Pharmaceutical Education and Research Society
Abstract
| Pages: 76-83
Oxidative stress plays a critical role in pathogenesis of various diseases. Recent studies on plant extract suggest the involvement of active constituents for its antioxidant effect. Though Couroupita guianensis (CG) plant has been exploited for several activities less has been reported related to its antioxidant potential. Antistress activity was carried out using cold restrain stress (RS) model whereas its antioxidant activity was evaluated by 2, 2-diphenyl, 1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) assay. The animals were divided into six groups of six animals each. Diazepam was used as standard drug for cold RS activity. In RS model, levels of triglyceride, cholesterol and corticosterone were elevated as compared to vehicle control in rats. Animals treated with extract of CG methanolic (CGM) 100mg/kg and 250 mg/kg doses significantly reduced the blood cholesterol level. Triglyceride and corticosterone levels were significantly lowered at all the three doses of CGM in a dose dependent manner as compared to stress control. RS caused an increase in the weight of adrenal glands at higher dose (500 mg/kg). The IC50 value for DPPH assay was 98.98μg/ml whereas in brain homogenate it was 20μg/ml using the TBARS assay. The present finding suggests antistress and antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Couroupita guianensis.

Benzothiazole - A Potent Pharmacophore in Medicinal Chemistry: A Review

Author(s):Desh Deepak Pandey, Dilipkumar Pal
Journal: PHARMANEST - An International Journal of Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences
Publisher:Pharmaceutical Education and Research Society
Abstract
| Pages: 84-93
Benzoheterocycles such as benzothiazoles, benzimidazoles and benzoxazoles can serve as unique and versatile scaffolds for experimental drug design. Among the all Benzoheterocycles, benzothiazole has considerable place in research area especially in synthetic as well as in pharmaceutical chemistry because of its potent and significant pharmacological activities. Since, a wide range of methods are available for synthesizing benzothiazole nucleus and its derivatives but a real need exists for new procedures that support many kinds of structural diversity and various substitution. The present review deals with the common methods adopted and reported to focus the synthesis as well as cyclisation of benzothiazole nucleus.

Formulation and Evaluation of Simvastatin Fast Dissolving Tablets

Author(s):G. Sainath, A. Mamatha Sree, J. Lavanya, G. Subba Rao
Journal: PHARMANEST - An International Journal of Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences
Publisher:Pharmaceutical Education and Research Society
Abstract
| Pages: 94-104
Fast dissolving tablets are the fast growing and highly accepted drug delivery system in now a day mainly to improve patient compliance. Fast dissolving tablets have number of advantages over conventional dosage forms, because of those fast dissolving tablets have emerged as an alternative to conventional dosage forms. Fast dissolving tablets of Simvastatin were prepared using superdisintegrants viz; crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycolate using direct compression technique. The tablets prepared were evaluated for thickness, uniformity of weight, hardness, friability, wetting time, in vitro disintegration time and in vitro dissolution time. The different formulations showed disintegration time between 60 to 130 s. Drug release was between the time ranges of 30 to 60 min. Among all the formulations, F9 (containing 6% of Sodium starch glycolate) showed 99% drug release within 30 min and it showed least disintegration time (60s). Thus, F9 was considered best among the formulations and compared with tablet prepared with different technique (granulation) and marketed formulation and F9 was best among all the formulations.

Assessment of Factors That Cause ARV Drugs Regimen Change among Hiv Infected Adult Patients Who Have Started Initial Haart Treatment In Adama Referral Hospital’S Art Clinic, Central Ethiopia

Author(s):Abreham Sime, Chalachew Teshale, Bayew Tsega, Zeryawkal Ergetie
Journal: PHARMANEST - An International Journal of Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences
Publisher:Pharmaceutical Education and Research Society
Abstract
| Pages: 44-53
Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) claimed the lives of millions of people worldwide. It is also orphaning millions of children globally. Provision of Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment (HAART) for People living with HIV/AIDS has been a challenge in resource limited countries and Ethiopia is not an exception; Ethiopia is one of the countries hardest hit by the pandemic. Objective: To assess factors responsible for Antiretroviral (ARV) drug regimen change for adult patients on ART in Adama Referral Hospital Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) clinic, Central Ethiopia Methodology: Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted using review of clinical records of adult patients started on ART at Adama Referral Hospital ART clinic, Central Ethiopia. Result: the clinical cards of 400 adult patients were reviewed. The common reasons for ART drug regimen change were toxicity, co-morbidity and planning pregnancy. From these 400 adult patients, 204 of them made treatment regimen change due to toxicity followed by co-morbidity. Most of the patients start with stavudine (D4T)/lamivudine (3TC)/nevirapine (NVP) followed by D4T/3TC/ efavirenz (EFV) as an initial therapy. About 40.3% of the patients made their treatment switch in the 3-6 months duration of initial treatment. Conclusion and recommendation: the main reasons for modification of ART in Adama Referral Hospital were toxicity, co morbidity and planning pregnancy/being pregnant. It was observed that most of the patients made their ARV drug regimen change within the first six months of therapy. Complete recording of all the information necessary should be done within the clinic so that patients can receive their medications based on risk-benefit ration. Accurate and routine recording of all the relevant patient clinical information should be made so that patient treatment is easily monitored.

Antibacterial agents and innate immunity

Author(s):Alexander M. Abdelnoor
Journal: The International Arabic Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Publisher:iMedPub
Abstract
| Pages: 1-5
On their own, antibacterial agents cannot cure an infectious disease. They need help from the innate immune response followed by the adaptive immune response and inflammatory response. An overview of Toll-Like Receptors (TLR) as key players in the innate immune response is given followed by a review of published results obtained in the authors laboratory related to the effect of several antibacterial agents on the action of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a ligand for TLR-4. The results indicated that the antibacterial agents tested were anti-inflammatory. Inflammation is a two edged sword; in moderation it is beneficial, but deleterious if in excess. It is suggested that infectious disease specialists monitor serum proinflammatory cytokine and/or nitric oxide levels of their patients on antibacterial therapy and when needed, treat with a cytokine, a TLR agonist or a TLR antagonist where indicated. Antibacterial agents on their own are not capable of eradicating infections efficiently. Help coming from the patient’s innate immune response followed by the adaptive immune response and inflammatory response is needed. This has been observed in patients with immunodeficiency diseases such as X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia, Chronic Granulomatous Disease and CD40 Ligand Deficiency (1). Treatment of these patients with antibacterial agents might temporarily control the infection. However, recurrences’ always occur.

Physicians compliance with antimicrobials’ de-escalation in intensive care units in jordan

Author(s):Jamal Wadi MD, FIDSA, Sahar Al Shair PharmD, Waseem Abu Ashour PharmD, Mohammad Rabi PharmD, Haifa Petro RN, Amani Romman RN, Yaseen Alastal M.D, Rula Rashed M.D, Gheida Melhem PharmD
Journal: The International Arabic Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Publisher:iMedPub
Abstract
| Pages: 1-5
Background: To evaluate physicians’ behavior toward antimicrobials de-escalation for their patients should an opportunity come into view. Methods: A prospective observational study held in three hospitals. Data were obtained prospectively for ICU patients with the diagnosis of sepsis i.e. systemic sepsis of any source, multi-organ dysfunction syndrome, and septic shock and were started on broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents (BSA). Failure to de-escalate was considered if a known culture was available and was susceptible to a narrower antimicrobial agent; hitherto the treating physician did not de-escalate. Excluded from the study patients who were not started on BSA, were on antimicrobial prophylaxis or there was no clear indication for starting BSA, also patients whom their microbiological diagnoses were not available or the pathogen was only susceptible to the initially started BSA. Results: One hundred and nineteen patients were followed; their charts were reviewed. There was 69 (58%) male and 50 (42%) female with mean ages of 59.3 and 68.6 years respectively. Eight (6.7%) patients were de-escalated to narrower spectrum antimicrobials. None of: APACHE II score, comorbidities, patients’outcome while on BSA, sepsis-predisposing clinical diagnosis and microbiological diagnosis significantly encourage physicians for de-escalation. The commonest initial antimicrobials used were Meropenem, Pipracillin/Tazobactam and Imipenem. Conclusion: The majority of physicians did not de-escalate when it ought to be done. The concept of de-escalation has to be stressed upon widely among treating physicians.

Comparative Study of Wound Healing After Treatment With Crude Date Extract and Silver Sulphadiazine

Author(s):Abdul–Karim J. Sallal, Mohsen S. Al-Mahmoud, Wael A. Khamas, Randa A. Al- Sharawneh
Journal: The International Arabic Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Publisher:iMedPub
Abstract
| Pages: 1-8
Objective: Various naturally occurring substances have been used in wound treatment throughout history. The most common topical agent used in the treatment of wounds includes silver sulphadiazine. Crude date extract (CDE) in comparison with silver sulphadiazine was tested to evaluate their effects on wound healing and their antimicrobial activities against the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. Material and Methods: The effect of different concentrations of crude khudari date extract on the growth of S. aureus was studied. Active compound was partially purified using thin layer chromatography technique with different solvents. Evaluation of wound healing activity with CDE was done by creating full-thickness incision wounds in rabbit’s skin and using in comparison silver sulphadiazine. Results: Crude date extract 5% (w/v) and silver sulphadiazine 20% (w/v) inhibited the growth of S. aureus by 67% and 87%, respectively. However, 10% and 20% (w/v) date extract showed 100% inhibition. Date extract was fractionated using different solvents with different polarities; all fractions were tested for their antimicrobial activities. Ethyl acetate fraction was found to have inhibitory activity against the growth of S. aureus. Preparative TLC was done for ethyl acetate fraction which was further identified to be terpenoidal compound. The histological changes in healing wounds have also been investigated by light microscopy after treatment with 20% and 40% crude date extract, silver sulphadiazine and amoxicillin. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that 20% CDE treatment has promoted the process of wound healing and stimulates fibroblast, collagen and epithelialization significantly. This effect was comparable with the effect of silver sulphadiazine treatment.
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