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Malignant growth Maxilla management an analysis

Author(s):Balasubramanian Thiagarajan, Geetha Ramamoorthy
Journal: Otolaryngology Online Journal
Publisher:Otolaryngology online
Abstract
| Pages: 92-279
Malignant tumors involving maxilla is rather rare. This comprises about 1% of all malignant tumors seen in humans. This tumor constitutes roughly 3% of all head and neck malignancies. This article discusses our experience in managing patients with malignant tumors of maxilla. All our patients underwent total maxillectomy followed by post operative irradiation. Mean survival rates of our patients ranged from 2.5 years to 3 years. Survival rates were also dependent on the histology of the tumor. This is a retrospective study of patients who presented to our Institution between 2006-2010. In our study we found that surgery had a definitive role despite the staging. Even advanced cases had a definite improvement in the quality of life. All our patients received post operative irradiation (full course) following total maxillectomy.

ACUTE OTITIS EXTERNA AS SEEN AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA TEACHING HOSPITAL, ENUGU.

Author(s):Dr Francis A Ibiam, Dr Obasikene Godwin, Professor Basil Ezeanolue, Dr I J Okoroafor
Journal: Otolaryngology Online Journal
Publisher:Otolaryngology online
Abstract
| Pages: 93-279
Aim: is to evaluate clinical features of AOE diagnosed in and to update the previous study from our facility. Methods: A prospective, clinical and laboratory study in a tertiary health facility Results: A total of 3793 consecutive patients that attended the otorhinolaryngology clinics of the university of Nigeria teaching hospital Enugu during the period under study were assessed for clinical diagnosis of otitis externa. A total of 155 ears from 127 patients were diagnosed clinically and confirmed by microbial studies as having acute otitis externa. There were 66 males and 61 females out of the 127 patients seen. 71 ears had only bacteria isolated from the culture of their ear swab specimens, 28 fungus only and, 32 ears had both bacterial and fungal isolates while 24 ears had no isolates of microbes of the 3793 patients assessed. Conclusions: Acute otitis externa is a common disease in Enugu with no gender bias and there were three times more cases of bacterial otitis externa than fungal otitis externa.

Fracture Nasal Bones

Author(s):Balasubramanian Thiagarajan, Venkatesan Ulaganathan
Journal: Otolaryngology Online Journal
Publisher:Otolaryngology online
Abstract
| Pages: 83-248
Nose is the most prominent part of the face, hence it is likely to be the most common structure to be injured in the face. Although fractures involving the nasal bones are very common, it is often ignored by the patient. Patients with fractures of nasal bone will have deformity, tenderness, haemorrhage, edema, ecchymosis, instability, and crepitation. These features may be present in varying combinations. This article discusses the pathophysiology of these fractures, role of radiography and ultrasound in their diagnosis and their management.

Fracture zygoma and its management our experience

Author(s):Balasubramanian Thiagarajan, Seethalakshmi Narashiman, Karthikeyan Arjunan
Journal: Otolaryngology Online Journal
Publisher:Otolaryngology online
Abstract
| Pages: 84-251
Zygoma is a very crucial component which maintains facial contour. Fractures involving zygoma is very common, in fact it is the second most common facial bone to the fractured following facial trauma (next only to nasal bones). Fractures involving maxilla not only creates cosmetic deformities, it also causes disruption of ocular and mandibular functions too. This article attempts to discuss in detail the etiopathogenesis and the various management options available. It also includes our 3 years experience in treating these patients at Stanley Medical College Chennai. During the period of 3 years between 2010 - 2012 about 82 patients got treated in our institution for faciomaxillary trauma.

Blow out fracture A Novel Management Modality

Author(s):Balasubramanian Thiagarajan, Venkatesan Ulaganathan
Journal: Otolaryngology Online Journal
Publisher:Otolaryngology online
Abstract
| Pages: 85-254
Blow out fracture of orbit involves fracture of orbital floor without fracture of infraorbital rim. This injury is common from frontal blow to orbit. Frontal blow to orbit causes increased intraorbital tension causing fracture of floor of the orbit (weak point) with prolapse of orbital content into the maxillary sinus cavity. This causes enophthalmos and diplopia. Infraorbital rim is not involved in pure blow out fracture, it is also involved then it should be considered as an impure blow out fracture [3]. Entrapment of inferior rectus muscle between the fracture fragments will cause diplopia in these patients. This article discusses a novel endoscopic internal reduction of fractured fragments. Main advantage of endoscopic approach is the lack of facial skin incision. It is cosmetically acceptable.

old foley’s in a new bottle’- USE OF FOLEY’S CATHETER IN ANTERIOR MAXILLARY WALL FRACTURES

Author(s):Vrinda B Nair, Seethalakshmi Narashiman, Srikamakshi Kothandaraman
Journal: Otolaryngology Online Journal
Publisher:Otolaryngology online
Abstract
| Pages: 86-258
Management of comminuted zygomaticomaxillary fractures are is an entity that has always tested the skill of surgeons. A variety of methods have been coined over the years for management of these fractures. Packing the antrum with a gauze or balloon can be used in much comminuted fractures especially with anterior antral wall communication. Internal immobilization with a Foley’s balloon catheter is being used widely in Blow out fractures of orbit and rarely in tripod fractures. Despite a thorough search, not much literature could be found of its use in anterior maxillary wall fractures. The purpose of this article is to appraise this technique in anterior maxillary wall fractures.

Fracture frontal bone and its management

Author(s):Balasubramanian Thiagarajan
Journal: Otolaryngology Online Journal
Publisher:Otolaryngology online
Abstract
| Pages: 87-261
Fractures involving frontal bone are rather uncommon. Injuries to this bone is rather critical because of its proximity to brain. This article attempts to discuss this topic with focus its prevalence, its causes and various treatment modalities available. Three crucial areas need to be addressed. They include anterior table, posterior table and frontal sinus outflow tract. Posterior table fractures are usually associated with anterior table fractures and CSF leak. Hence these patients should be treated as head injury cases.

Liquisolid Technology: A Review

Author(s):Manpreet Kaur, Rajni Bala, Sandeep Arora
Journal: PHARMANEST - An International Journal of Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences
Publisher:Pharmaceutical Education and Research Society
Abstract
| Pages: 1-15
Poor bioavailability which is only caused by poor water solubility is a technological challenge represented by poorly soluble, highly permeable active pharmaceutical ingredients (BCS Class II drugs) resulting in low drug absorption. Various techniques are used for the improvement of the aqueous solubility, dissolution rate, and bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs include micronization, chemical modification, pH adjustment, solid dispersion, complexation, coâ€solvency, micellar solubilization, hydrotropy etc. A more recent technique, “powdered solution technology†or “Liquisolid technologyâ€, has been applied to prepare water-insoluble drugs into rapid-release solid dosage forms. In this case, even though the drug is in a solid dosage form, it is held within the powder substrate in solution or, in a solubilized, almost molecularly dispersed state, which contributes to the enhanced drug dissolution properties. With Liquisolid technique liquid formulations such as solutions or suspensions of poorly soluble drugs in a non-volatile liquid vehicle are converted into acceptably flowing and compressible powders by simple physical blending with selected excipients named the carrier and the coating material. The liquisolid approach has been successfully applied in release enhancement of low dose poorly soluble drugs.

A Detailed Review on Diabetes Mellitus and Its Treatment in Allopathic and Alternative Systems

Author(s):N.V. Satheesh Madhav, S.Bhattacharya, S.N.Uniyal, Anuj Nautiyal
Journal: PHARMANEST - An International Journal of Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences
Publisher:Pharmaceutical Education and Research Society
Abstract
| Pages: 16-43
The current aim of the review is to provide a complete basic to updated knowledge in diabetes mellitus because in India the current status of diabetes was occupying 4.164% of total Indian population and the figure will increase to two-fold by 2030 as per prediction of world diabetes foundation. The review article encompasses epidemiology, etiology, symptoms, method for diagnosis and various system for treating this disease such as allopathic, ayurvedic, homeopathic, acupuncture and yoga. This article will give clear cut idea to reader about the existing therapy that are available for treatment of diabetes mellitus in one stretch platform.
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