Total Articles 55
of 3448 | |
Development of a Hybrid Nanoprobe for Triple-Modality MR/SPECT/Optical Fluorescence Imaging
Author(s):Renata Madru -- Pontus Svenmarker -- Christian Ingvar -- Freddy Ståhlberg -- Stefan-Andersson Engels -- Linda Knutsson -- Sven-Erik Strand
| Pages: 13-26
Hybrid clinical imaging is an emerging technology, which improves disease diagnosis by combining already existing technologies. With the combination of high-resolution morphological imaging, i.e., MRI/CT, and high-sensitive molecular detection offered by SPECT/PET/Optical, physicians can detect disease progression at an early stage and design patient-specific treatments. To fully exploit the possibilities of hybrid imaging a hybrid probe compatible with each imaging technology is required. Here, we present a hybrid nanoprobe for triple modality MR/SPECT/Fluorescence imaging. Our imaging agent is comprised of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), labeled with 99mTc and an Alexa fluorophore (AF), together forming 99mTc-AF-SPIONs. The agent was stable in human serum, and, after subcutaneous injection in the hind paw of Wistar rats, showed to be highly specific by accumulating in the sentinel lymph node. All three modalities clearly visualized the imaging agent. Our results show that a single imaging agent can be used for hybrid imaging. The use of a single hybrid contrast agent permits simultaneous hybrid imaging and, more conventionally, allow for single modality imaging at different time points. For example, a hybrid contrast agent enables pre-operative planning, intra-operative guidance, and post-operative evaluation with the same contrast agent.
Diseases — the Reasons for a New Challenge in Open Access Medicine Research
Author(s): Maurizio Battino
| Pages: 1-2
First, I would like to warmly welcome the readers, contributors, and editorial board members of Diseases journal as a new entrant to the international periodicals industry. [...]
Trypanosomatid Aquaporins: Roles in Physiology and Drug Response
Author(s):Goutam Mandal -- Jose F. Orta -- Mansi Sharma -- Rita Mukhopadhyay
| Pages: 3-23
In the class Kinetoplastida, we find an order of parasitic protozoans classified as Trypanosomatids. Three major pathogens form part of this order, Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei, and Leishmania, which are responsible for disease and fatalities in millions of humans worldwide, especially in non-industrialized countries in tropical and sub-tropical regions. In order to develop new drugs and treatments, the physiology of these pathogenic protozoans has been studied in detail, specifically the significance of membrane transporters in host parasites interactions. Aquaporins and Aquaglyceroporins (AQPs) are a part of the major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) super-family. AQPs are characterized for their ability to facilitate the diffusion of water (aquaporin), glycerol (aquaglyceroporin), and other small-uncharged solutes. Furthermore, AQPs have been shown to allow the ubiquitous passage of some metalloids, such as trivalent arsenic and antimony. These trivalent metalloids are the active ingredient of a number of chemotherapeutic agents used against certain cancers and protozoan parasitic infections. Recently, the importance of the AQPs not only in osmotic adaptations but also as a factor in drug resistance of the trypanosomatid parasites has been reported. In this review, we will describe the physiological functions of aquaporins and their effect in drug response across the different trypanosomatids.
Pathological Mutations of the Mitochondrial Human Genome: the Instrumental Role of the Yeast S. cerevisiae
| Pages: 24-44
Mitochondrial diseases, which altogether represent not so rare diseases, can be due to mutations either in the nuclear or mitochondrial genomes. Several model organisms or cell lines are usually employed to understand the mechanisms underlying diseases, yeast being one of them. However, in the case of mutations within the mitochondrial genome, yeast is a major model because it is a facultative aerobe and its mitochondrial genome can be genetically engineered and reintroduced in vivo. In this short review, I will describe how these properties can be exploited to mimic mitochondrial pathogenic mutations, as well as their limits. In particular; pathological mutations of tRNA, cytb, and ATPase genes have been successfully modeled. It is essential to stress that what has been discovered with yeast (molecular mechanisms underlying the diseases, nuclear correcting genes, import of tRNA into mitochondria or compounds from drug screening) has been successfully transferred to human patient lines, paving the way for future therapies.
MeCP2-Related Diseases and Animal Models
Author(s):Chinelo D. Ezeonwuka -- Mojgan Rastegar
| Pages: 45-70
The role of epigenetics in human disease has become an area of increased research interest. Collaborative efforts from scientists and clinicians have led to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which epigenetic regulation is involved in the pathogenesis of many human diseases. Several neurological and non-neurological disorders are associated with mutations in genes that encode for epigenetic factors. One of the most studied proteins that impacts human disease and is associated with deregulation of epigenetic processes is Methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2). MeCP2 is an epigenetic regulator that modulates gene expression by translating epigenetic DNA methylation marks into appropriate cellular responses. In order to highlight the importance of epigenetics to development and disease, we will discuss how MeCP2 emerges as a key epigenetic player in human neurodevelopmental, neurological, and non-neurological disorders. We will review our current knowledge on MeCP2-related diseases, including Rett Syndrome, Angelman Syndrome, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Hirschsprung disease, and Cancer. Additionally, we will briefly discuss about the existing MeCP2 animal models that have been generated for a better understanding of how MeCP2 impacts certain human diseases.
DABCO as a novel and efficient catalyst for the synthesis of pyridine dicarbonitriles
Author(s):Yahia. Sh. Beheshtia, Maliheh Khorshidi, Majid M. Heravi., Bita Baghernejad
Journal: Wudpecker Journal of Medicinal Plants
| Pages: 30-33
Pyridine dicarbonitriles have been synthesized good yields via a one-pot multiâ€“component reaction of
aldehyde, malononitrile, and thiol in the presence of DABCO as a catalyst in Ethanol.
Thymol content and economic effect of nitrogen and phosphorus application on Ethiopian cumin at Mersa, North Wollo, Ethiopia
Author(s):Amare Girma, Mekuria Taddesse
Journal: Wudpecker Journal of Medicinal Plants
| Pages: 34-40
This experiment was conducted to evaluate economic benefit of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)
application and response of thymol content to fertilizer treatment in Ethiopian cumin. Four levels of
nitrogen (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1) and four levels of phosphorus (0, 25, 50 and 75 kg ha-1 in the form
of P2O5) were used and the treatments were arranged in randomized complete block design with three
replications. Main and interaction effects of fertilizer treatments significantly improved straw and seed
yields while thymol content was affected only by the main effects of fertilizers. Maximum straw yield
(2235 kg ha-1) and seed yield (1072 kg ha-1) were recorded due to combined effect of 100 kg N ha-1 and 50
kg P2O5 ha-1. The highest thymol content due to main effect of nitrogen (36.2%) and main effect of
phosphorus (36.22%) were obtained from the application of 100 kg N ha-1and 75 kg P2O5 ha-1,
respectively. The economic analysis indicated that the highest marginal rate of return for straw yield
(406.67%) and seed yield (998.30%) were recorded with sole application of 50 P2O5 kg ha-1 and 100 kg N
ha-1, respectively. This may indicate the requirement for consideration of different rates of fertilizer for
yields and profit maximization.
A CHEESY AFFAIR! - REPORT OF A CASE OF AN EPIDERMOID CYST OF PAROTID
Author(s):Srikamakshi Kothandaraman, Balasubramanian Thiagarajan
Journal: Otolaryngology Online Journal
| Pages: 76-326
This article is a report of a case of epidermoid cyst of the deep lobe of
the left parotid, being reported and described for the benefit of the readers in
view of the rarity of the condition.
Schwannoma of the cervical vagus nerve: A rare benign neurogenic tumor
Author(s):Gokce Simsek, M.D., Mehmet Sahan, M.D., Behcet Gunsoy, M.D., Ataturker Arikok, M.D.,
Istemihan Akin, M.D.
Journal: Otolaryngology Online Journal
| Pages: 81-345
A schwannoma, also known as an acoustic neuroma, is a benign nerve sheath tumor composed of
schwann cells, which normally produce the insulating myelin sheath covering the peripheral nerves.
Schwannoma, originating from the cervical vagus nerve, is an extremely rare neoplasm that usually
occurs in men between the 3rd and 6th decades of life. The most common presentation is a painless,
slow-growing, lateral neck mass;this appears in a large proportion of cases. Complete surgical
resection with care to protect the nerve of origin is the recommended treatment of choice. Here, we
report a case of cervical vagal schwannoma in a 55-year-old male who admitted with the complaint of
a firm and painless mass lesion on the right side of the neck. The management of the case is
discussed along with the relevant literature.