Environmental Sciences

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Antimicrobial Activities and Evaluation of Genetic Effects of Moringa Peregrina (Forsk) Fiori Using Molecular Techniques

Author(s):Abdulrahaman S. Hajar -- Nehad M. Gumgumjee
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 65-72
Moringa peregrina (Forsk) Fiori,Moring aceaeused in folk medicine. In the present work, ethanol extracts of different parts of this plant (leaves, seed coat and seed endosperm) along with some standard antibiotic were assessed against three Gram+ve bacteria (Bacillus subtilius, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus) and three Gram-ve bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa & Klebsiella pneumoniae).The effect magnitude of these extracts on tested bacteria strains were as follows: leaves extract>seed coat >seed endosperm respectively. Results showed a strong effect of all these parts on Staphylococcus aureus. The leaf ethanol extract exhibited remarkable antifungal activities on the tested fungi in order of sensitivity as C. albicans>A.flavus>A.fumigatus>A.niger C. albicans was the most sensitive to all used M.peregrina parts. Antimicrobial activities of standard antibiotics showed an inhibitory effect on all tested bacteria. However the ciproflaxocin is more effective than streptomycin. The antifungal activities of standard antibiotics showed that the amphotericin is less effective than nystatin. The results of our antimicrobial assay revealed that the different parts extract of M. peregrina showed higher inhibitory activity on tested organisms than the standard antibiotics. The antimicrobial effect of M. peregrina leafs extract were explored at the molecular level, using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) extracted from the control andtreated Staphylococcus aurueus and Candida albicans. The results demonstrate polymorphic band pattern for most treated microbes compared with the untreated strains. The present study suggested that M. peregrina leafs could have wide antimicrobial activity spectrum.

Evaluation of Surface Water Quality of Kanyakumari District through Water Quality Index Assessment

Author(s):N.K.Amaliya -- Sugirtha P.Kumar
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 73-77
Physico-chemical analysis of pond water samples from four different sampling sites of Kanya kumari district were carried out for the period from August 2011 - August 2012. The aim of the present study was to calculate the water quality index(WQI) values to assess the quality of the water. The values of WQI from four different ponds varied from 33.01 - 112.9.

Potential of Trichoderma Spp. As Biocontrol Agents against Rhizoctonia Bataticola Causing Dry Root Rot of Chickpea

Author(s):G Amrutha Veena -- N P Eswara Reddy -- B V Bhasakara Reddy -- L Prasanthi
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 78-81
Ten Trichoderma spp were isolated from chickpea rhizosphere and root endophytic region by using serial dilution technique and purified by single hyphal tip method. Out of the ten isolates tested against Rhizoctonia bataticola, Trichoderma isolate-7 showed highest inhibition percentage (83.33). In compatability tests with commonly used fungicides, Trichoderma isolate-7 showed highest compatability with validamycin (72.22%) followed by copper oxychloride (66.66%).

Impact of A New Microsporidian Infection on Larval and Cocoon Parameters of the Silkworm, Bombyx Mori L.

Author(s):Surendra Dutta Sharma -- Murikinati Balavenkatasubbaiah -- Ahmed Mohamed Babu -- Sundaramurthy Nirmal Kumar -- Bharat Bushan Bindroo
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 82-87
Microsporidiosis is an important disease of silkworm caused by pathogenic microbes belonging to Phylum microsporidia. Various workers have isolated a number of microsporidia from silkworm. Recently, a new microsporidian was isolated from the silkworm by the authors of the present study. The microsporidian spores were studied for their morphology, pathogenicity and the transmission. These characters of the new microsporidian were compared with that of Nosema bombycis spores, a standard strain causing Pebrine disease in silkworm. The purified spores isolated from the silkworm were ovo-cylindrical in shape and measured 4.03 ± 0.24 μm in length and 2.30 ± 0.14 μm in width with 1: 0.57 length width ratio. In contrast, the spores of Nosema bombycis were oval in shape and were 3.80 ± 0.01μm in length, 2.60 ± 0.01μm in width and 1: 0.68 length width ratio. At the inoculation doses of 1 ×103 and 1×104 spore/ml, the infection rate in the moths was found to be 3.00 and 8.67 % with new microsporidian and N. bombycis respectively. At subsequent high inoculation doses 29.00 to 63.00 % infection at moth stage was recorded. The microsporidian has resulted in low larval and pupal mortality but remarkably high infection percentage in moth stage at 1×105 and 1×106 spore/ml inoculation doses. Studies also indicated that infection by the new microsporidian in mother moth did not impact the larval health and cocoon parameters in the next generation. In case of Nosema bombycis, cocoon parameters were significantly affected as the inoculum dose increased from 1 ×103 to 1 ×106 spores/ml. The larvae hatched from the eggs laid by Nosema bombycis infected moths (20 and above spores/field) did not survive up to cocooning. The results have been discussed in light of the studies carried out.

Virtual Screening and Molecular Docking Studies of Quercetin against Bluetongue Virus Proteins

Author(s):Vaddalamudi.Taranath -- Peddanna Kotha -- Saigopal D V R
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 88-93
Bluetongue is major infectious disease ruminants caused by Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an icosahedral, non-enveloped virus belongs to the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae that contains 10 dsRNA genome segments within three concentric protein shells. For this reason, regulatory veterinarians have heightened their interest in this devastating disease. In the present study, we identified the action of Quercetin on 2BTV, 2JH8 and 1BVP proteins obtained from Protein Data Bank using docking studies and quercetin structure retrieved from Pubchem. The active sites were predicted in BTV proteins with CASTP server. Using protein structure, a flexible Docking study was performed between Quercetin and theoretically predicted active sites. The results indicated that amino acids are Arg98, Ser 97, Gln96 and Glu83 present in 2BTV and Thr10, Tyr11, Glu36, Ile23 1BVP proteins are core important for binding studies and these residues are having strong hydrogen bond interactions with Quercetin. We have investigated compound interactions and scoring parameters using GOLD docking package. From the docking studies, we also suggest that Arg98 in 2BTV protein domain and Thr10, Tyr11 were important residues in binding interactions. ADMET server predicted the Pharmalogical studies of quercetin, which shows the acceptable results.

Investigation of Biofertilizers Influence on Vegetative Growth, Flower Quality, Bulb Yield and Nutrient Uptake In Gladiolus (Gladiolus Grandiflorus L.)

Author(s):Ahmad Ali -- Tahir mehmood -- Rashid Hussain -- Ajmal Bashir -- Sajjad Raza Najam-ud-Din -- Adeel Ahmad
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 94-99
The study was aimed to assess the effect of different bio-fertilizer on growth and flower quality characteristics of Gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus L.)An experiment with complete randomized block design (RCBD) having five biofertilizer treatments containing N-fixer bacteria (Azotobacter, Azospirillum), Rhizobium and P solubilizing bacteria with control and three replications was completed under green house conditions. The present results have shown that all the vegetative and reproductive growth accomplished successfully by application of biofertilizers. However, the treatment containg Azospirillum (T4) gained highest values in terms of plant height, florets spike-1, Spike length, Florets fresh weight and earlier sprouting than rest of the treatments. The role of biofertilizers in cormels production and nutrient uptake, T4 had also superiority with more cormels plant-1 and played leading role in nutrient (NPK) absorption than the control one. So, in this experiment Biofertilizer has been identified as an alternative to chemical fertilizer in order to increase soil fertility and crop production in sustainable farming.

Disinfection and Hygiene Technology Using Asthra and Ankush for the Management of Silkworm Diseasesm.

Author(s):Balavenkatasubbaiah. K. Chandrasekharan -- S. D. Sharma -- A. R. Narasimha Nayaka -- B. B. Bindroo
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 100-106
Disinfection and hygiene are integral part of silkworm, Bombyx mori L. rearing and plays an important role in the elimination of pathogenic microbes. Use of effective disinfectant for eliminating the pathogens from the rearing environment and use of bed disinfectant to disinfect the silkworm body and rearing seat are important aspects in prevention of diseases during rearing. Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute (CSR&TI), Mysore has developed two products viz., Asthra, a new spray disinfectant for disinfection of rearing house and appliances and Ankush, a user friendly bed disinfectant for prevention of spread of all common diseases. Asthra, is a chlorine based disinfectant and is effective against all common silkworm pathogens at 0.05% concentration. The disinfectant is found to be effective in disinfecting the contaminated rearing house and rearing appliances. This disinfectant was test verified at farmers’ level and found effective. Similarly, Ankush which is effective in preventing the spread of silkworm diseases during rearing was also tested at the farmer’s level and the results confirmed its efficacy. Disinfection and Hygiene technology was developed using Asthra and Ankush for the management of silkworm diseases and test verified and found effective. These two products were commercialized for large-scale production and showing wide acceptance among farmers.

Agronomic Responses of Maize to Plant Population and Nitrogen Availability-A Review

Author(s):P. Venkata Rao -- G.Subbaiah -- R.Veeraraghavaiah
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 107-116
Maize is one of the most important versatile cereal crops grown in tropical and temperate regions of the world. India ranks fifth in area and third in production and productivity among cereal crops. Potentiality of maize crop for its growth and development can be fully exploited by adopting suitable agronomic practices such as optimum spacing, fertilizers, soil conditions, growing season and water availability. The major plant nutrients N, P and K limit the normal plant growth. Increasing the productivity per unit area through agronomic management is one of the important strategies to enhance the productivity of maize. Keeping this in view an attempt was made to review the work done on the effect of plant population and N level on yield and economics of maize under irrigated as well as no-till conditions. In maize, the effect of plant density and N management was well documented.

A Novel Addition of Fungal Taxa from Indian Sub-Continent

Author(s):Thakur R. S -- Rai A.N -- Dudey M.K
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 117-121
The mycological study of fungi with special reference of Mycotaxonomic investigation present communication deal with a new species of dematiaceous hyphomycetes Camposporium goureae infecting the leaves of Bridelia retusa Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae) from the forest flora of the Indian sub-continent. that have been described, illustrated and compared with allied taxa.
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