Environmental Sciences

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Environmental Awareness and Its Related Factors in Highly Populated Urban Area: A Short Review

Author(s):Rita Sundari
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 172-177
This article discusses the implications of environmental awareness in crowded municipal region in relation to non structural urban planning, environmental geology, watershed development and human behavior. The role of policy makers and stakeholders on comprehensive urban planning system are also involved in association with environmental awareness. Long term environmental mismanagement in urban planning and development has impacted on routine water flood problems affected the social and economic factors as well as the unsustainable lifestyle of a mega city. The complicated factors involved in this comprehensive urban development have taken great attentions from environmental activists as consequences on the responsibilities of friendly urban management ongoing with the conditions of highly populated urban development.

Seasonal Patterns in Butterfly Diversity and Abundance In Relation To Weather Parameters at Kambalakonda Eco-Tourism Park, Vishakhapatnam

Author(s):D. Sandhya Deepika -- Laxmi Sowmya .K
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 178-187
Kambalakonda eco-tourism park spread over an area of 80 hectares comprises Scrub Jungle type of vegetation with herbs, trees and shrubs with different flowering seasons. A total of 41 butterfly species belonging to 8 families were observed during the study period i.e. 2007-2008. Among these maximum butterfly sighting were witnessed in Pieridae followed by Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Lycaenidae, Danaidae, Acaraeidae, Satyridae and Hesperiidae. Of the 41 butterfly species 23 were encountered all through the year. More than half of the total butterfly species were encountered in wet season (58%) i.e. during July- November because the frequent rains in this period promote luxuriant growth and flowering in this season that serves as food source for the butterflies. The regression analysis indicated that monthly average temperature, monthly average day length, monthly average relative humidity and monthly total rainfall could collectively influence the abundance of butterflies of different families to different extents.

Diet Composition of the Barn Owl Tyto Alba (Aves: Tytonidae) and Spotted Owlet Athene Brama (Aves: Strigidae) Coexisting In an Urban Environment

Author(s):Ved Patki -- Varsha Zade -- Shyamkant Talmale -- Jayant Wadatkar
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 188-192
The diet of the Barn Owl Tyto alba and the Spotted Owlet Athene brama were studied in an urban habitat of Yavatmal city, Maharashtra, India, during June to October 2013. Regurgitated pellets of these two owl species were analysed to understand their dietary composition. The diet of the Barn Owl mainly comprised small mammals such as Suncus murinus (61.53%) and Mus Booduga grey (23.07%), while the diet of the Spotted Owlet comprised mostly insects like Coleoptera (87.47%) and Mus booduga (35%). Food niche overlap between the Barn Owl and the Spotted Owlet in overall diet as indicated by Piankas index was found to be 0.131.

Enhancing the Vase Life of Tulip (Tulipa Gesneriana L.) Using Various Pulsing Solutions of Humic Acid and Npk

Author(s):Ahmad Ali -- Shoaib-ur-Rehman -- Rashid Hussain -- Sajjad Raza -- Mubeen Sarwar -- Ajmal Bashir -- Muhammad Abdulsalam Khan
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 193-200
The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of various humic acid concentrations and NPK levels for vase life response of Tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L.) cv. Triumph. The data was statistically analysed by using complete randomized design (CRD) in three replications and observations were recorded at two intervals (Ist at: 5 days, 2nd at: 10 days). Three concentrations of humic acid (25, 50, and 75 ml/l) along with NPK dose was applied which were compared with control. The statistical results revealed that all measured traits increased with increase in humic acid concentration and treatment combination of humic acid (HA) and NPK produced a significant difference in post harvest attributes than a single application. The highest values for quality parameters like scape length (30.95 cm and 34.12 cm), tepal diameter (10.34 mm and 11.89 mm), water uptake (66.95cm3 and 62.87cm3), fresh weight (33.21g and 38.32g) and minimum stem curvature percentage (17.23% and 19%) were observed in T5 (75 ml/l humic acid + 10 g/l NPK) as compared to control (T0=distilled water) at two intervals. Concerning the influence of humic acid and NPK for vase life, T5 also had a superior effect on days for vase life (18.70 days) as compared to other treatments.

A New Variety of Smithia (Fabaceae) From the Southern Western Ghats, India

Author(s):Anoop P. Balan -- S.V. Predeep
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 201-204
Smithia venkobarowii Gamble var. glabra A.P. Balan and S.V. Predeep is described here as a new variety from the Southern Western Ghats of India. A detailed description, illustration and distribution map are provided for easy identification.

Concentration of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water with Emphasis on Human Health

Author(s):J. Bala Chennaiah -- M.A.Rasheed -- D.J.Patil
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 205-214
The study was undertaken to assess the status of drinking water quality in the rural areas of the Bhongiri region, India. A total of 42 drinking water samples were collected from areas of the region, viz.: Ghatkesar, Pagidipalli, Bibinagar, and Bhongiri. All the samples were analysed for three physicochemical parameters Such as Conductivity, Total dissolved solids (TDS), pH and Twelve heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, Mo ,Zn ) and cations like (Na,K, Ca, mg)using standard procedures. The results were compared with other national and international standards. Among the analysed samples, regarding physicochemical parameters, 21% of the sample for hydrogen ion concentration (pH), 73.80 % of the sample for total dissolved solids (TDS) and 33% of the samples forelectrical conductivity (EC) concentrations higher than the WHO (2004) recommended values. All the Cations (Na, Mg, K, and Ca) concentrations exceeded the permissible limits of WHO and BIS. Regarding Heavy metals out of twelve Heavy metals six heavy metals (Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) concentrationsexceeded the WHO and BIS permissible limits, this could poses serious health diseases. It is recommended that potable water sources in the study area should be routinely monitored to ascertain its suitability for drinking and other purposes.

The Effect of Potassium Sulfate Fertilizer on Potassium Accumulation In Leaves and Stomatal Behavior under Deficit Irrigation at Flowering Stage in Cowpeas

Author(s):Zeinab Mohammadi -- Tayeb Saki Nejad -- Alireza Shokooh Far
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 215-220
In order to study the effect of potassium sulfate on potassium accumulation in leaves and stomatal behavior under deficit irrigation in cowpeas, a split plot experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications was carried out in Shahid Salemi field in Ahvaz at longitude 48°40´ east and latitude 31°20´ north and 22.5 m above the sea level in the summer of 2012. The experiment factors involved the main plot including three levels of deficit irrigation (irrigation at 70, 100 and 150 mm evaporation from class A evaporation pan) and the sub plot included four levels of potassium sulfate (0 kg/ha, 50 kg/ha, 100 kg/ha and 150 kg/ha). Each replication included 12 plots so the experiment included 36 experimental units. Stomatal conductance was measured at flowering stage by porometer. The results showed that the effect of deficit irrigation on stomatal conductance was significant and the highest conductance belonged to the treatment with irrigation at 70 mm evaporation. Moreover, the effect of different levels of potassium sulfate on stomatal conductance was significant and the highest stomatal conductance belonged to the treatment with 100 kg/ha potassium sulfate fertilizer.The interactive effects of different levels of deficit irrigation and potassium sulfate fertilizer on all the measured traits were significant. It could be said that among the applied treatments, irrigation at 70 mm evaporation and 100 kg/ha potassium sulfate fertilizer is the best treatment for cowpeas under Ahvaz weather conditions and is the most effective.

Rapd Marker Based Dna Fingerprinting In Released Varieties and Selected Superior Somaclones of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale Rosc.)

Author(s):Pujaita Ghosh -- M.R. Shylaja -- P.A. Nazeem
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 221-229
Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay was performed to fingerprint ginger varieties from Kerala Agricultural University “Athira”, “Karthika” and “Aswathi” and three selected superior somaclones of ginger viz., B3, 478R and 88R and source parent cultivars Maran and Rio-de-Janeiro. Good quality genomic DNA was extracted from ginger varieties / somaclones and source parent cultivars using CTAB method. Thirty five RAPD primers were screened for amplification of genomic DNA and ten primers were selected based on the amplification pattern. DNA fingerprints of the varieties / somaclones were developed utilizing the clear, distinct bands generated in RAPD profiles and size of the amplicons. Different colour codes were assigned for amplicons produced by the marker system in different varieties, somaclones and source parent cultivars to generate fingerprints. The fingerprints developed were unique and specific for the varieties / somaclones and source parent cultivars.

Combining Ability and Gene Action for Morphological Parameters In Quality Protein Maize (Zea Mays L.)

Author(s):V Hemalatha -- R Sai Kumar -- V. Swarnalatha -- J. Suresh
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 230-235
Combining ability analysis was done using 45 F1 hybrids and their parents obtained from a diallel mating design for six morphological parameters. Both general and specific combining ability variances were highly significant for almost all the characters except anthesis-silking interval. Based on GCA effects the parents , P4 - TQPM 34-1 and P3- QPM 46-3 were early and contributed maximum favourable genes for maturity characters and P3- QPM 46-3 and P10-QPM 89E- were good general combiners for plant height and ear height while the crosses Viz., P1 X P9 and P4 X P9 for earliness and P4 X P6 and P3 X P6 for plant height and ear height are the best specific combiners, involving either both the parents or one of the parents as good general combiners. Hence, these crosses could be advanced further for isolation of transgressive segregants and also to develop good inbred lines. These crosses exhibited 15-20 % yield superiority over the best hybrid check.
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