Environmental Sciences

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Effect of Biological Fertilizer on Corn

Author(s):Mohammad Fahramanda -- Khashayar Rigib*
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 117-120
Maize is the most important grain crop that has great economic importance and is grown worldwide. The largest areas under maize are in the regions with mild and moderate climate. The selection for highly productive plants has been a constant process since the discovery of maize. Nitrogen is a gas that acts like a precious metal being very stable, it is less soluble in water than oxygen, and does not produce compounds with any element at room temperatures; hence it is called the “aristocrat” among the elements. This research was conducted in 2012 in South Khorasan Agriculture and Natural Resources research station located in mohammedia area in Birjand based on the factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with three replications. In this experiment, two factors including fertilizer and the time of usage, it was examined on single cross704 corn. Analysis of variance tests indicated that the significant difference between the 1% Fertilizer the weight of 100 grains of corn were biologically.

Evaluation of Yield and Some Morphological Traits of Wheat Varieties under Drought Stress

Author(s):Peyman Aligholizadeh Moghadam -- Yousef Alaei -- Elena Khabiri
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 121-125
Since the drought is known as one of the most essential factor limiting growth and crop production, an experiment was carried out to evaluate the yield components of 15 bread wheat genotypes in a randomized complete block design with three replications in Islamic Azad University Research Farm of Ardabil in 2011-12. In this study, traits such as yield per ha, plant height, spike length, number of grains per spike and seed weight were studied. Analysis of variance indicated a significant difference among genotypes for all traits were evaluated. The overall mean yield in genotypes was 2427.1 kg ha in this study. Genotype 12 with 3125 kg ha produced the higher grain yield and genotype 9 had the lowest (1650 kg ha) than other genotypes.

Mycorrhizal Status of Populus Alba and Accompanying Species of Riparian Forest in the Reserve of Sidi Boughaba (Northwest of Morocco)

Author(s):Zouheir Talbi -- Mohamed Chliyeh -- Karima Selmaoui -- Amina Ouazzani Touhami -- Rachid Benkirane -- Allal Douira
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 126-133
This study describes the mycorrhizal status of Populus alba, the main species of the riparian reserve of Sidi Boughaba (northwest of Morocco) and accompanying species: Smyrnium olusatrum, Urtica membranacea, Ononis natrix, Pteridium aquilinum. Microscopic examinations of these species roots have revealed the presence of endomycorrhizal and endophytic structures in all samples. Mycorrhizal frequency and intensity have respectively reached 100% and 75%. The spore’s number of the endomycorrhizal species those were isolated from the rhizosphere of these plant species reached 78 spores/100g of soil. Spores belonging to the genera of Glomus, Acaulospora, Scutellospora, Gigaspora and Kuklospora. Scutellospora nigra and Scutellospora sp1 are the two most abundant in the sites of the Sidi Boughaba riparian.

Effect of Seed Priming on Quantitative Traits Corn

Author(s):Mohammad Reza Vazirimehr -- Hamid Reza Ganjali -- Khashayar Rigic -- Abbas Keshtehgar
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 134-140
Maize had its origin in a semi-arid area but it is not a reliable crop for growing under dry land conditions, with limited or erratic rainfall. Drought can be defined as the absence of adequate moisture necessary for a plant to grow normally and complete its life cycle. Drought occurs every year in many parts of the world, often with devastating effects on crop production. Seed priming is a successful method that has been proved to improve seed germination and emergence of seedlings. The experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, zahak (in Iran). The field experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with split plot design with three replications. Seed priming with potassium nitrate solution in five levels (0, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%) allocated to main plots and three levels of water stress Include: Control (no stress), Water stress at vegetative stage (5 leaflets) to enter the reproductive phase and Stress at reproductive stage until harvest. Analysis of variance showed that the effect of irrigation and priming on Plant height, stem diameter, Number of leaves, Biological yield Harvest index was significant.

Sources of Shared Variability in Body Weight and Linear Body Measurement Traits of Two Breeds of Rabbit

Author(s):Egena, S.S.A -- Akpa, G. N -- Aremu, A -- Alemede, I. C
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 141-145
Records obtained from two breeds of rabbit; New Zealand White and Chinchilla were used in the study. Body weight, nose to shoulder length, shoulder to tail length, heart girth, trunk length and length of ear were the parameters measured. The objective of the study was to assess variability among body weight and linear body measurement traits of the rabbit breeds and hence, deduce the components that best describe body weight using factor analysis.Correlation coefficient between body weight and linear body measurements in the New Zealand White rabbit ranged from 0.723 to 0.931and 0.713 to 0.938 in the Chinchilla rabbit, respectively. The shares of total variance of the first two principal factors were55.6% and 32.7% for New Zealand White rabbit, and 50.8% and 35.3% in the Chinchilla rabbit respectively. Together the first two factors accounted for 88.2% and 86.1% of the total variability in the New Zealand White and Chinchilla rabbits, leaving 11.8% and 13.9% as unique factors respectively. The first factor in all the breeds accounted for the greatest percentage of the total variability and hence, was representative of body weight.

Weed Growth Dynamics Associated With Rainfed Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Establishment under Different Tillage Systems in Pothwar

Author(s):Safdar Ali -- Muhammad Azim Malik -- Muhammad Ansar -- Rahmatullah Quresh
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 146-154
Initially Germination and finally crop establishment are the major problems of rainfed wheat in drought condition, if the crop has been germinated well then the winter rains are sufficient to establish the wheat in rainfed areas of Pakistan. Field experiment was conducted at University Research Farm of PirMehr Ali Shah, Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan to research out the wheat crop establishment and weed population dynamics under different tillage systems integrated with glyphosate herbicide under wheat-fallow rotation through randomized complete block design during summer and winter seasons of 2012-13. The experiment comprised of seven tillage treatments viz. T1 = 1 MB Plowing + 8 Cultivations, T2 = 1 MB Plowing + 4 Cultivations, T3 = 1 Disc Harrowing + 4 Cultivations, T4 = 1 Chiseling + *Glyphosate herbicide, T5 = 1 MB Plowing + *Glyphosate herbicide, T6 = 1 Disc Harrowing + *Glyphosate herbicide and T7 = No-Till + *Glyphosate herbicide. The tillage treatments in combination with glyphosate herbicide were applied during fallow period of summer season 2012 and sowing of wheat cv. Chakwal-50 was done in winter season 2012-13. Wheat establishment and weed growth dynamics were determined through different scientific variables viz. number of tillers m-2 , shoot length plant-1, root length plant-1 anddry biomass m-2 at 45 DAS of wheat and weed density m-2, weed species diversity and weeds dry biomass m-2 at two stages i.e. 60 DAS and 150 DAS of wheat, respectively. Results showed significant effect of treatments on number of tillers m-2 and dry biomass m-2 of wheat, while, non-significant on shoot length and root length of wheat; whereas, weeds density m-2, weeds species diversity and weeds dry biomass m-2 were significantly affected by different tillage systems at both 60 DAS and 150 DAS stages of wheat. There were significant dynamics in diversity, density and dry biomass of weeds between both stages. Based on these results and cluster analysis of wheat establishment and weeds growth data, it is concluded that wheat crop was well established under T1, T2, T5 and T6and the weed growth was minimum under T1 and T7; therefore T1is recommended to the farmers of Pothwar region of Pakistan; whereas, further investigations are required to conclude the adaptation of reduced or no-till system in semi-arid zones of Pakistan.

Effects of Mycorrhiza and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Dry Weight, Protein Percent, Harvest Index, Grain Yield in Wheat

Author(s):Mohsen Noori -- Alireza Sobhkhizi -- Mohammad Adibian Mojtaba Keykha -- Khashayar Rigi
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 155-159
Wheat is a major cereal crop in many parts of the world and it is commonly known as king of cereals. Properly applied nitrogen fertilizer has a positive effect on crop yield. At a high level of such fertilization it is advantageous to apply it twice or three times to plants at different stages of development. There is an opinion that mycorrhizal fungi occur in chickpea plants and improve the growth and yield of these plants, especially in phosphorus deficient soil. In this study, research crops planted in 2011, and Khash mountain stage carried the gem industry. This study is a factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with three replicates and all experiments were performed with different levels. To measure this attribute required for analysis (about 250 g) of seeds harvested per plot were randomly selected, were inside the envelope was sent to the labtally after installation. Analysis of variance shows a significant effect on mycorrhiza in 5% of the dry weight, Protein percent, Harvest index, Grain yield of the plant is wheat.

Evaluation and Determination of Minerals Content in Fruits

Author(s):Farid Amidi Fazli -- Neda Amidi Fazli
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 160-166
Minerals are important in human nutrition, some play essential role in bone making others are important in body maintenance or metabolic; some of minerals are part of enzyme molecules. To determine mineral content of donat peach, apple, pear, plum and nectarine 10 g of each weighted then burned in 550 °C. Obtained ash was used to measure different types of minerals which have important functions in the body they are calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium and sodium. Dry matter content of samples was determined according to AOAC method. Results showed that among analyzed fruits nectarine has highest ash content as % 0.54 on the other hand the lowest ash content belongs to pear (%0.34) other fruits has similar ash content. Analysis indicated that calcium content of peach is the lowest (600 mg/100g) but peach has the highest content of potassium (0.273 mg/100g) and iron (228.4mg/100g). The highest phosphorus content measured in apple (33 mg/100g) although apple had lowest sodium content (134.9 mg/100g). Highest ash content of nectarine may be due to high calcium content of this fruit (1240 mg/100g) but nectarine had lowest potassium content (115.2 mg/100g). Consumption one serve of nectarine or two serves of peach a day can provide human body need to calcium. Consumption of two serves of pear during day can provide half of body need to sodium. Examined fruits cannot provide the daily body need to phosphorus, potassium and iron.

Development of Protocol for Mass Multiplication of Two Elite Varieties of Sugarcane through Micropropagation

Author(s):Tarafdar S -- Meena R -- Dhurandhar K -- Pandey V -- Vipani C -- Thakur S
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 167-171
Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) also called "noble canes" by Dutch scientists, belongs to family Poaceae and genus Saccharum. Sugar cane is the main source of sugar in all tropical and subtropical countries of the world with an annual production of 40 - 41 million tons. Sugar i.e. sucrose is necessary part of daily diet and a major portion of total sugar produced is used in alcoholic beverages, soft drinks, ice-creams, chocolates, canning industries and its by-products i.e. molasses and bagasse are also utilized as raw material for manure, fiber board and paper making units and even as fuel in sugar mills. Sugar cane is a tall, perennial grasses which is propagated vegetatively by stem cuttings called ‘setts’ having healthy buds. The conventionally propagated sets thus use a substantial number of canes and yet do not ensure uniformity, pest free or disease free status of planting material. The in vitro regeneration methods instead ensure large number of uniform, disease free and vigorous planting material in relatively lesser time. I this study we were emphases on the shoot tips containing auxiliary meristem were inoculated in MS medium with a fixed concentration of BAP (1mg/lit) for shoot tip initiation and establishment. Small shoots started appearing with in 7-10 days in all cultures bottles. Maximum shoot lengths were obtained in SM-II media i.e. MS supplemented with 0.25mg/lit BAP. After 30 days of incubation the average shoot length recorded in SM-II medium was found to be 1.63cm in Co-86032 and 1.65cm in C0-94012. Similarly the regenerated shoots were used for root induction in root forming media. The response of root formation was different in all media, as highest root formation average was observed in RM-III (3 mg/lit NAA & 3 mg/lit IBA) followed by RM-II media. Average number of plants showing roots was 9.6 in Co-86032 whereas it was recorded low in Co-94012 i.e. 7.8 in RM-III.
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