Environmental Sciences

Search by keywords:
Total Articles 64 - 72 of 4955 | |

Deportation of Toxic Phenol from Aqueous System by Wheat Husk

Author(s):Devaanshi Jagwani -- Pranita Joshi
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 58-64
The potential of employing wheat husk for phenol adsorption from aqueous solution was studied. Batch experiments and isotherm studies were carried out under varying experimental conditions of contact time, phenol concentration, adsorbent dose and pH. The extent of removal was dependent on concentration of phenol, contact time, pH, and quantity of adsorbent. Adsorption equilibrium of wheat husk was reached within 5 hr for phenolic concentration 100-900 μg/L. With an initial concentration of 0.2 mg/L phenol in 100 mL and pH 7.0, the removal was found to be about 91.7% with 3.0 g wheat husk. The adsorption of phenol decreases with increasing the solution pH value. The suitability of the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models to the equilibrium data were investigated for each phenol-sorbent system. The results showed that the equilibrium data for all the phenolsorbent systems fitted the Freundlich model best within the concentration range studied. A comparative study showed that wheat husk was very effective at lower concentrations of phenol for removal. The studies showed that the wheat husk can be used as an efficient adsorbent material for removal of phenols from water and wastewater.

Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococci from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Hyderabad

Author(s):Hajera M -- Mustafa M -- Sreenivasa Reddy C -- Naidu N. V -- Kiran Kumar V -- Jayasimha Rayalu D
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 65-69
Rising level of resistance to a wide range of antibiotics by both Staphylococcus aureus [SA] and Coagulase Negative Staphylococci [CoNS] represent a significant threat to future treatment efficacy. Present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococci [MRS] which included both, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA] and Methicillin Resistant Coagulase Negative Staphylococci [MRCoNS] from different clinical samples and their invitro susceptibility pattern to various antimicrobials. Methicillin resistance was tested by oxacillin and cefoxitin disk diffusion method. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern of all the isolates was determined by modified Kirby bauer disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration MIC of Vancomycin was determined by E-test method. Of the 186 isolates, 129 isolates (69.35%) were identified as SA and the remaining 57 (30.64%) as MRCoNs. The frequency of MRSA was 34.10 % ( 44/129) and MRCoNS was 26.31 % (15/57). All MRS isolates were 100% resistant to penicillin and recorded 100% sensitivity to vancomycin. The % resistance of MR isolates towards Teicoplanin was 1.69% (1/59) and Linezolid was 6.77% (4/59). Rifampicin and Amikacin showed resistance of 18.64% (11/59) each. Cefuroxime, Cefadroxil, Gentamycin and Erythromycin showed higher resistance of 74.57%, 64.40%, 64.40% and 61.01% respectively. A higher rate of antibiotic resistance was noted in MRCoNS as compared to MRSA. Hence accurate and prompt detection of methicillin resistance are of key importance in ensuring proper antibiotic treatment in infected patients and control their spread in the hospital environment. A detailed knowledge of their sensitivity to antibacterial agents is thus necessary to facilitate the development of effective strategies to combat the growing problem of resistance.

Challenges of Oil Installations Development for Rural Areas. A Case Study of Iran

Author(s):Ebrahimi -- Mohammad Sadegh -- Amini -- Amir Mozafar -- Keshavarzian -- Hamid
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 70-74
The oil industry has conflicts which centre around such concerns as widespread environmental degradation, human displacement, inadequate compensation for loses imposed in the oil producing communities and inadequate community level involvement which often leads to alienation between state and the indigenous population. The aim of this research was investigating the challenges of oil installations development for rural areas from the view point of Lavan Island residents in Iran. The research was conducted in the form of survey study. The population of the study included the rural resident in Lavan Island. The necessary data for this research was collected squarely by 135(with the use of Cochran formula) rural resident in Lavan island were sampled by using random sampling method. The reliability of questionnaire was calculated by cronbach alpha coefficient for different sections after conducting a pilot study for each structure separately calculated: economic factor 0.921, social 0.890, culture 0.894, infrastructural 0.965 and environmental 0.860 respectively. The results of this research showed that the oil industry could be had negative impacts for rural areas. The results of factor analysis showed that the negative impacts of oil industry development in Lavan Island included to: infrastructural, social, cultural, environmental and economical factors that five factors have explained 67% of total variance.

Quality Assessment of Drinking Water: A Case Study of Mohanpur Village of District Samastipur, Bihar, India

Author(s):Priyanka -- Surendra Prasdad -- Anand Mohan Jha
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 75-79
Assessment of quality of drinking water is very crucial for public health. A study was conducted to evaluate the quality of groundwater in a village Mohanpur situated at the boarder of Samastipur town of North Bihar. Water samples were randomly collected from 20 tube wells situated near the pit latrines at the radius of 10- 15 feet. The samples were analyzed for physico-chemical parameters like pH, electrical conductivity, total hardness, total dissolved solids; chemical parameters like total alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, chloride, nitrate, sulphide, and microbiological parameter total coliform (MPN). In most of the water samples the values of one or more physicochemical parameters of drinking water were higher than the BIS permissible level. In pre-monsoon season 13 water samples and in post-monsoon season 15 water samples showed MPN above the recommended permissible level. Introduction of sewage and animal waste into the drinking water might be the reason for the contamination of water samples.

Effect of Different Levels Zinc Sulfate and Potassium Sulfate on Morphological Characteristics Characteristics of Sunflower (Heliantnus Annuus L.) Under Water Salinity

Author(s):Mirshekari Somayyeh -- Farzanju Mousa -- Mirkamali Ali
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 80-88
To evaluate the effect of different doses of zinc sulphate and potassium sulphate on morphological characteristics of sunflower under saline conditions, an experiment was conducted as split plot in a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station of Zahak, located 20 km south of the Zabul city. In this experiment, the type of irrigation in two levels includes irrigation with salinity water (S) and irrigation with fresh water (N) were considered as the main treatments and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) and potassium sulfate (K2SO4) were considered as as sub treatment. Morphological traits evaluated include plant height, head diameter, number of leaves. The results showed that a morphological trait in irrigation treatments in both normal and salinity mode was significant at the five percent level and performance was significant at the one percent level. Above traits due to fertilizer treatment was significant at the one percent level, Interaction of irrigation conditions and fertilizer are significant at the five percent level. Average comparison of traits in the interaction of fertilizer and irrigation conditions showed that all traits measured have maximum amount in the treatment of 60 kg zinc sulfate and 250 kg potassium sulphate in normal irrigation conditions (N-Zn3-K3).

Investigating Effects of Rice Herbicides on Controlling Ratoon Weed

Author(s):Abas pournasrollah -- Hassan Nickkhah Bahrami -- Reza Valiollahpour -- Mohammad Hossein Haddadi
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 89-91
Field trials were conducted to evaluate various herbicids for weed control in rice farm (ratton rice crop) in Sari, Iran during the summer season of 2012. Six herbicide treatments were evaluated and compared with hoe weeding control and a weedy check in a randomized complete block design with four replications. All the weed control treatments and hoe weeding significantly reduced weed growth and resulted in higher rice grain yields than the respective weedy check. Among the various herbicide treatments tested application of Sunriceplus (Anilofus + Auto oxi sulforon), Stuff (Sinosulforon), londux (Bensulforon-methyl)+Machete –EN (Botakolor), Londux (Bensulforon-methyl) and hoe-weeded control consistently combined effective weed control with good crop growth and high kernel yields with 2175,2092/5,1940,1897/5 and 18 kg/ha comparable to the weedy check (1065kg/ha). Herbicides effect on weeds of Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv., Cyperus difformis L., Cyperus rotundus L., Cyperus globosus Aublet, and Scirpus mucronatus L. also were studied. Londux had the highest effect on all of the weeds except Cyperus globosus Aublet. Hoe weeding effect was nearly same as Sunriceplus. All of the herbicides were effective on weeds in compare of weedy check.

Effect of Plant Density on Grain Yieldand Yield Components in Faba Bean

Author(s):N. Derogar -- M. Mojaddam
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 92-96
In order to investigate the effect of density and cultivar on yield and yield components of faba bean cultivars, field experiment was carried out in the city of Ahwaz field healthy martyr in a factorial randomized complete block design with four replications in crop year of 2011-2012. These factors include density at three levels (8, 12, 16 plants per square meter) and three varieties (Barekat, Saraziri, local varieties dezful), respectively. The results showed that the density of 12 p/m2 was significantly increased grain yield and yield components and Barekat variety it had the highest degree of yield grain and yield components compared with others varieties. High yield of Barekat cultivar is due to more accumulation of dry matter and greater number of pods and grains per pod in this cultivar rather than other cultivars. As the plant density increased grain yield components including number of pods, number of grains per pod, and 100-grain weight decreased which resulted from the competition among pods to use environment resources that caused the plants to develop less. Cultivars also were different in terms of yield components and Barekat cultivar was superior to the other two ones.

Effective Ex Situ Conservation of Endangered Species Beloperone Plumbaginifolia Nees: A Medicinal Plant

Author(s):Raja Muthuramalingam T -- Mohammed Riyaz S U -- Dharanivasan G -- Michael Immanuel Jesse D -- Kathiravan K
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 97-102
Beloperone plumbaginifolia is a wild shrub, identified as an endangered medicinal species by the human exploitation for antidote properties. The establishment of ex situ conservation method, a simple and effective protocol was developed by us to conduct micropropagation abreast with genetic stability from regenerated clones by Random amplified polymorphic DNA marker. In in vitro tissue culture, high frequency bud break (45-65%) and multiple shoot (5±1 shoots/explants) was obtained from nodal explants inoculated in Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) fortified with benzylaminopurine alone (2.0 -2.5mg/l) in the 15th day. The kinetin hormone alone fortified, showed faster bud breaking (10th day) in all the concentration of (0.5-2.5 mg/l) and 4±1 shoots per explants was achieved on 1.5 mg/l. Auxin hormone of Indole-3 butyric acid along with Kinetin in ratio of 3.5:0.5 mg/l was found effective on root formation. Finally in acclimatization process, 73.6% of survival rate was found among the plants in the field after 3 months. Evaluated the genetic stability by RAPD random primer (OPK-15) was specified low variation occurred between mother plant and in vitro propagated clones. Jaccard’s coefficient of similarity varied from 0.53 to 0.93 indicated high level of genetic similarities between mother plant and in vitro regenerated plants.

Bibliographic Catalog of Endemic or Rare Mushrooms of Morocco

Author(s):Saifeddine El Kholfy -- Abdelkrim El-Assfouri -- Amina Ouazzani Touhami -- Nadia Belahbib -- Rachid Benkirane -- Allal Douira
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 103-116
An inventory of the endemic and rare fungi of Morocco is compiled from literature. 251 species with the reduced area are listed. 14 are endemic, 3 endemic Morocco- Mediterranean, 57 very rare, 116 rare, 18 fairly rare and 44 not very frequent.
Page:12345678910Next