Environmental Sciences

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Mangrove Phytochemicals Inhibit Against West Nile Virus Replication In-Silico Analysis

Author(s):Senthilraja.P -- Suganya. K -- Manikanda Prabhu. S -- Kathiresan. K -- Prakash. M
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 5-11
West Nile Virus is an arthropod borne virus of genus Flavivirus. Mosquitoes are predominate arthropod vector. WNV is a single stranded, positive sense RNA of about 11 kb containing a single long open reading frame flanked by Non coding region at both ends. The RdRp polymerase activity of Nonstructural protein NS5 has essential role in viral replication. The RdRp duplicates the single stranded RNA genome during a single, continuous polymerization event. In this study we performed docking study on NS5 Methyltransferase protein as target and ligand compounds are selected from the natural products of mangrove derived compounds and performed the docking to inhibit the viral replication process. The screened mangrove derived compounds were binding site of WNV RdRp which inhibits the viral replication.

The Solanum Nigrum Complex in Western Kenya

Author(s):Matasyoh L.G -- Mwaura M.H
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 12-15
Solanum nigrum complex is a group of plant species used as indigenous vegetables and also a source of traditional medicine in Kenya and other parts of the world. There are many species in the S. nigrum complex which include S. villosum, S. scabrum, S. nigrum and S. americanum among others. This study was carried out in order to determine the species of the S. nigrum complex found in Western Kenya. Samples were collected from Eldoret, Kisumu, Kakamega, and Bungoma. The plants were then pressed and sent to a taxonomist at Egerton University for classification and identification. The samples collected were found to belong to three different species namely; S. nigrum, S. scabrum and S. villosum; which all belong to the S. nigrum complex. The vegetative features exhibiting variations included colour and size of the berries, size of leaves and colour and shape of the stems. S. scabrum was found to be the most common in the study region and this was associated to the popularity of the species as food based on the large size of the leaves, and the taste of the leaves as cooked vegetables

Determination of Chemical Composition and Rumen Degradability of Dry Matter and Cell Wall of Vicia Canescens at Different Phenological Stages in Neor Rangelands of Ardabil Province

Author(s):FarzadMirzaeiAghjeh Qeshlagh -- Jamal Seif Davati -- Ardavan Ghorbani -- Saeeid Mehdizadeh -- Farhad Mirzaei
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 16-22
This study was carried out in order to determine the chemical composition and rumen degradability of dry matter and cell wall of Vicia canescens at different phenological stages in Neor rangelands of Ardabil province. The samples of Vicia canescens was collected from two sites and three phenological stages of growth (vegetative, flowering and seed ripening). Rumen degradability of dry matter and cell wall of Vicia canescens.L at different phenological stages using nylon bag method and two castrated and ruminally fistulated male Moghani sheep were applied. There were significant differences between the amount of DM, NDF, ADF, Ash contents and DM degradability and also between the amount of degradability parameters of DM, NDF and ADF including rapid degradable portion(a), slow degradable portion (b), constant rate of degradability (c)and effective degradability (ED)in different phenological stages (P<0.01). The results showed that with herb maturity ruminal digestibility of dry matter and degradability parameters of DM, NDF and ADF were significant decreased and DM, NDF and ADF values increased significant (P<0.01). The Highest and lowest amount “a” and “b” parameters of DM were obtained at vegetative stage and seed ripening respectively. Also, altitude effect on chemical compositions, dry matter degradability and studied degradability parameters were significant (P<0.01). Generally, it is concluded that maturity of plant led to decrease in the amount of degradability consequently diminish nutritive value of plants.

Terminal Drought Induced Changes in Leaf Protein Pattern of Wheat

Author(s):Abdollah Najaphy -- Kamran Moradpour -- Cyrus Mansourifar -- Ali Mostafaie
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 23-26
For evaluation of changes in leaf protein pattern of wheat, 10 wheat genotypes were assayed under both terminal drought stress and non-stress conditions. SDS-PAGE electrophoresis was used to assess protein pattern of flag leave after applying the stress. As a whole, thirty five protein bands were detected. Most of the bands under the stress conditions were similar to those in non-stress environment and specific bands were rare. Under drought stress, some low molecular weight proteins were intensified, while high molecular weight proteins were faint. Cluster analysis under non-stress conditions classified the wheat genotypes into three groups but in stress environment, the entries were grouped into four clusters.

Development of Male Specific Dna Based Marker In Simarouba Glauca Dc (Paradise Tree)

Author(s):R. C. Baratakke -- C. G. Patil
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 27-34
Simarouba glauca DC, is a poly-gamo-dioecious tree belongs to family Simaroubaceae and a potential source of biodiesel. There is an urgent requirement to develop a tool needed for sex identification at pre-flowering stage to support selection and breeding of this plant because of its sex specific economic values. As there are no sex specific morphological markers and no allosomes to identify the sex through cytological methods, an easy, rapid and reliable molecular tool for sex identification at pre-flowering stage in S. glauca is reported in the present study. A total of 50 random decamer primers were used for screening of specific Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers in male and female populations. Only one primer OPA-18 amplified genomic DNA in different patterns in male and female genotypes. Pair of Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) primers designed based on RAPD sequence, amplified a single 1110 base pairs DNA band only in male populations. These SCAR primers may be efficiently used as effective, convenient and reliable molecular markers for sex identification in S. glauca at pre-flowering stages. This would pave the way to screen male and female seedlings for the mass cultivation which in turn save time and economic resources.

Molecular Characterization as a Defensive System of Wheat Genotypes Under Drought Stress

Author(s):Soleiman Mohammadi -- Farshad habibi -- Mohammad Rezaie
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 35-41
The experiment was carried out in Western Azerbaijan agricultural research center at Miandoab station in growing season 2009-2011. Main plots in this experiment included Different levels of irrigation after heading stage (70, 100 130 and 160 mm evaporation from class A pan) and the sub-plots consisted of 10 genotypes of bread wheat were planted in six rows. Drought is an important environmental factor, which induces significant alterations in plant physiology and biochemistry. Carotenoids are a large class of isoprene molecules, which were synthesized by all photosynthetic and many non-photosynthetic organisms. Results of analysis of variance show that significant differences between the fore late drought stress levels on carotene, Flavonoid, Fenol Tom, sucrose, fructose, glucose, proline and grain yield, Also inter action effect of drought stress level and genotype had the significant effect on same treat and it was show that the drought had a significant effect on biochemical regulation against drought condition. Otherwise correlation coefficient table for measured treat showed the high positive and negative correlation between measured treat in drought stress condition and there could be a mechanism for scape the drought period in experimental variety and line. Grain yield were affected by photosynthesis rate of crop and it was dependent light harvesting by organic complex like carotenoids and xanthophylls. Synthesis of lipids and pigments such as chlorophyll, xanthocynin and carotenoid is interrupted by water stress, and dues the high grain yield variety and genotype should have the molecular defensive mechanism as shown in this phase.

Investigate the Relationship between Studied Traits with Grain Yield Using Regression Analysis and Path Analysis in 34 Barley Lines and Cultivars

Author(s):Ali Mohammadpour khanghah -- Yousef Alaei -- Seyed Sajjad Moosavi
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 42-45
Path analysis has great significance in determine the relationship between important characteristics with economic performance. This experiment was conducted in Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Station of Ardabil in 2011-12. In this experiment, 39 barely lines and cultivars were evaluated in the form of augmented designs. Several varieties of these numbers called Bulbul, Sadik-02, Radical, Tokak and Makooye that is grown in the region were cultured in triplicate and 34 other lines were distributed randomly within these repeats and were studied. Results showed that the number of spikelet per spike, spike weight and length with 37% explained the maximum yield variation. The results showed that number of spikelet per spike and spike weight had respectively highest positive impact and spike length negative effect on increasing grain yield. Also results showed that characteristics such as number of spikelet per spike and spike weight had respectively 0.743 and 0.3 direct positive effect and spike length (-0.654) had a negative direct effect on grain yield.

Investigation of Cooking Method on Nitrate and Nitrite Contents In Crops and Vegetables and Assess the Associatied Health Risk

Author(s):Parisa Ziarati -- Sepideh Arbabi-Bidgoli
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 46-52
According to the recent studies southern parts of Tehran have the highest levels of pollution of environmental contaminants. A descriptive – analytical and cross-sectional study was conducted for determination nitrate and nitrite in vegetable and crops in Tehran's farmlands. 1650 samples of 13 varieties of vegetables: Potato, Onion, Carrot, Iceberg lettuce, Romania Lettuce, Celery( petioles and leaves), Cauliflower, Broccoli, Beetroot, Eggplant, Spinach, and cabbage during 12 consecutive months of 2012and 2013 cultivated in the 40 important agricultural areas in the south of Tehran were collected. The study indicated that size of crops in onion, potatoes, beetroots, carrot, cabbage and lettuces has an effect on its nitrate content as mostly in large crops the nitrate content was less. Large size onion, carrot, beetroot and potato had significantly ( p<0.01) lower nitrate levels than small size. In accordance of the result of nitrate and nitrite content after boiling samples finding that the nitrate content were reduced with boiling by approximately: 54% in cabbage, 36% in potato, 43% in cauliflower, 19% in onion, 39% in celery and 11% in carrot samples, while the contents of nitrite in most of samples were the same and only in potato and onion were reduced with boiling approximately 9.6% and 10.3% respectively. Considering the high levels of nitrate in leafy vegetables especially lettuces, the ingestion of only 100 g of raw vegetables with the nitrate concentration of 2500 mg/kg will already lead to an intake of 250 mgNO3. Consuming this item alone, for a person of 60 kg, would exceed the ADI for nitrate by 13%. Chinese lettuce, Iceberg Lettuce, Onion, potato, spinach samples were 100 % higher than standard levels of ECR especially they are in the highest level in the cold seasons. Nitrate levels in these vegetables and crops of southern Tehran are higher than maximum acceptable ECR levels.

Cytogenetic Effects of Tilt on Root Tip Meristem of Onion Allium Cepa L.

Author(s):P.V.Pulate -- J.L.Tarar
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 53-57
Cytotoxic effect of the fungicide tilt was investigated in root tip cells of Allium cepa. The seeds of A.cepa were treated with different concentrations (0.02%, 0.04%, 0.06%, 0.08 %) of Tilt for 3, 6, 9, 12 h treatment periods. The results showed that the mitotic indices gradually decreased with increase in time and concentration gradient. The abnormalities observed include C-metaphase, sticky metaphase, diagonal metaphase, disturbed metaphase, multipolar anaphase, precocious anaphasic chromosome, chromosome bridge at anaphase, laggard.
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