Environmental Sciences

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Physiological Response of Eucalyptus Camaldulensis Seedlings under Water Deficit Conditions

Author(s):Mudawi Mukhtar Elobeid
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 337-342
Drought is one of the most serious environmental problems that critically affects plant growth and development. In the present study young Eucalyptus camaldulensis seedlings were grown under varying levels of irrigation. The main aim of this study was to investigate the response of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, an important forest tree species to water deficit conditions. To address this goal, Eucalyptus camaldulensis seedlings were maintained in long soil columns containing a mixture of silt: sand in a 2:1 ratio (by volume), respectively under nursery conditions. Growth performance was monitored by taking regular measurements of plant shoot height and stem diameter and the growth rates were determined. Total plant dry mass as well as root-to-shoot ratio were determined to evaluate the impact of water deficit on dry mass production and partitioning. The obtained results indicated that both plant shoot height and stem diameter were significantly reduced and the effect was most substantiated in the seedlings which were irrigated at the longest irrigation interval. Root and shoot growth were adversely affected and in consequence the total plant dry mass as well as root-to-shoot ratio assumed the same patterns like those observed in plant shoot height and stem diameter. These findings might strongly suggest that Eucalyptus camaldulensis is rather sensitive to water deficit conditions. Further experiments are required to provide answers underlying the physiological events responsible for the weak performance of Eucalyptus camaldulensis under water deficit conditions.

Assessment of Water Quality Index and Trophic State Index of River Mandakini, India.

Author(s):Sadhana Chaurasia -- Raj Karan
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 343-347
The detailed survey of river revealed that small areas as well as large areas which fall in the way of river, dump domestic and toxic wastes in the river. Water contamination due to pathogenic agents, chemicals, heavy metals, pesticides water disinfectants and there by product as a consequence of industrial and agricultural activities leaching from soil, rocks, and atmospheric deposition and other human activities has become a hazard to human health in several regions of world. Physicochemical parameter of any water body plays a very important role in maintaining the fragile ecosystem that maintains various life forms. Water quality index is one of the most effective tools to communicate information on the quality of any water body. The value of W.Q.I. varied 31 to 42. So the water quality of all stations is bad for drinking and human consumption without purification. The results of the study showed that the river water at Ramghat & Karwi ghat is highly polluted with reference to WQI. Higher values of WQI clearly show that the status of river is not safe for human drinking & bathing purpose and Carlson’s Trophic State Index categorized Mandakini River in between oligotrophic and mesotrophic state.

Molecular Identification of Alfalfa Mosaic Virus Isolated From Naturally Infected Alfalfa (Medicago Sativa) Crop In Saudi Arabia.

Author(s):Jehan S. -- Al-Abraham
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 348-352
Alfalfa mosaic alfamovirus (AMV) causing a disease in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) crop in Saudi Arabia has been isolated and identified on the basis of determination of an experimental host range, symptom expression, morphological properties and a positive immunological test of the virus isolates. The primers designed on the basis of published sequences were applied for amplification of AMV RNA fragments in reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using host plants infected with AMV. The detection of AMV in Alfalfa was confirmed by RT-PCR technique. For virus detection, a pair of primers, AMV-F and AMV-R, specific to the AMV coat protein (CP) gene, was designed based on the nucleotide sequence alignment of known AMV strains. Assessments showed that RT-PCR using this primer set was specific and sensitive for detecting AMV and that the molecular technique is more reliable for the detection of Alfalfa virus in Alfalfa leaves. The sequencing and alignment of the RT-PCR amplified fragments has been stored in Gen-Bank AMV strain (accession no. KF487082), which was confirmed by the sequence analysis of their (CP) gene. Further studies for better understanding into AMV spreading over the crops, the effect on the physiological performance of the plant and eventually the effect on the crop product quality are urgently needed.

Essential Oil Composition and Total Flavonoid Content of Aloysia Citriodora Palau under Different Cultivation Systems

Author(s):Mahmoodreza Moein -- Mohammad M. Zarshenas -- Hamed Etemadfard
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 353-358
As a spice and medicinal plant, Aloysia citriodora Palau (Family, Verbenaceae) is applied in nutritional and pharmacological purposes. According to the findings, many parameters relating to growth location and cultivation conditions, may affect on the secondary metabolites of the herb and result in different percentage of concerned constituents. Accordingly, present study was performed to compare the chemical composition profiles of essential oil and total flavonoid content of Aloysia citriodora Palau leaves under three different cultivation situations. To this, three cutting batch of herb were cultivated in garden, green house and hydroponic systems. Essential oil was then extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed using Agilent technologies model 7890A gas chromatograph connected to a mass detector. Total flavonoid content was determined using Dowd method. Major essential oil constituents for the garden sample were Geranial (16.70%), Neral (13.46%) and Limonene (12.41%) followed by Caryophyllene oxide (9.30%), alpha-Curcumene (7.90%) and 1, 8-Cineole (5.49%). Main constituents were as Geranial (26.94%), Neral (21.46%) and alpha-Curcumene (9.15%) followed by trans-Caryophyllene (5.39%) for the green house sample and as Geranial (21.57%), Neral (18.25%), alpha-Curcumene (8.23%) followed by trans-Caryophyllene (6.20%) and Limonene (6.07%) for the hydroponic system. The total flavonoid content for garden, green house and hydroponic systems were determined as 7.01, 7.70 and 4.85 mg (QE)/g dry plant leaves. Despite some differences in volatile oil components of mentioned samples, findings of current work emphasizes that these cultivation conditions do not much create a significant difference in major essential oil ingredients. However results revealed the inappropriateness of hydroponic system versus other mentioned methods.

Mineral Status of Some Common Vegetation Available In Jodhpur District Of Rajasthan

Author(s):Aditi Soni -- Kajan Kumar -- Ravi Mathur
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 359-365
The Arid region of western Rajasthan is endowed with indigenous and well adapted vegetations, which play an important role in livestock feeding by virtue of their high nutritional and mineral content. Here some common well adapted vegetation such as grass species (Cenchrus ciliaris, Cenchrus setigerus and Lasiurus Sindicus) and cereal crop (Pennisetum Typholdenum) were taken from Jodhpur district of Rajasthan for their mineral content investigation. Standard methods were used for the analysis of multi nutrient for triplicate samples and a statistical analysis was also carried out. Cereal crops (Pennisetum Typholdenum) distinguished itself with very high concentration of Ca, Mg, Na, and Fe in comparison to grass species. Result showed considerable variation within and between species of grasses. The concentration of Sulfur and phosphorous was found more or less identical, whereas Sodium content was found very low in all vegetations. Micronutrient such as Iron and Copper was found adequate to meet animals need, whereas Manganese and Zinc content was found near critical level.

Fodder Potential and Chemical Composition of Acacia Nilotica Fruits For Livestock in the Dry Lands of Sudan

Author(s):Mohamed S. Abdalla -- Izeldin A. Babiker -- Jehan S. Al-Abrahim -- Afrah E. Mohammed -- Mudawi M. Elobeid -- Kamal F. Elkhalifa
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 366-369
In developing countries agriculture and grazing are the two most dominant activities of the indigenous populations for their livelihood. In such countries in which Sudan is no exception, scarcity of water constitute the major obstacle to maintain proper farming as well as grazing activities. Therefore, under these conditions the local inhabitants largely depend on some tree species suitable for grazing purposes. In the present study the nutritional value for the fruit (seeds and pods) of Acacia nilotica grown at the lower Atbara river basin in north-eastern part of Sudan was investigated. The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of Acacia nilotica as an alternative fodder for livestock in the area. Field samples of Acacia nilotica fruits were collected fresh, each sample was kept separately in a small cloth kit. Chemical analysis of fruit samples was conducted to quantify the content of various nutritional attributes including: crude protein, crude fibers, fats, starch, ashes and moisture content in addition to some minerals namely; P, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cu and Fe. Data of the chemical analysis revealed that the fruit of Acacia nilotica consists of 21.4% crude protein, 30.12% crude fibres, 24.77% fats, 93.71% dry matter and 11.67% ash content. These magnitudes demonstrate a high nutritional value of Acacia nilotica fruits. Similarly, mineral analysis also showed elevated concentrations of Ca, Mg and K adequate for livestock feeding; however, only meager amounts were detected for P and Na. In the light of the present data, it might be concluded that fruits of Acacia nilotica are nutritionally rich materials as fodder in terms of their high contents of crude protein and some essential minerals necessary for adequate growth. Further work is in-evitably needed to improve our knowledge on the nutritional value of Acacia nilotica fruits for its rational utilization as a promising substitute for fodder species under unfavourable browsing conditions in dry areas.

Modeling and Environmental Impact Assessment Implementation by Noise And Air Pollution Reduction of Indian Heavy Diesel Trucks on Highways

Author(s):Dr. Parag Dalal
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 370-375
Recent technology advances in automotive engineering have resulted in new type engine development with straight exhaust emissions and engine noise reductions. A systematic approach to evaluate these environmental problems should be taken as soon as possible. The highway development is among the activities essential for successful urban development. The transportation segment in India is the most important energy consuming segment. The key dispute in front of India is bottlenecks in power which contribute the limitation of financial development. The rise in amount of automobiles would absolutely add to air pollution which will result in many troubles of health by air and noise pollution. The reduction in visibility during chest hours will raise highway accidents to a large extent and will also increase various security problems. This paper attempts to investigate noise and air problems through an environment friendly model and V.A.P.I.S. to make a policy for most advantageous transportation and its ecological strategy. In noise different equations are used to determine L10 and L50 with special reference to highway diesel trucks. The vehicle emits contaminants generally on a height at which children of age infant to 5 live. This increases their health problems and they have less immunity for many diseases. Similarly the height at which horns are fixed is similar which increase deafness in kids.

Purification and Physicochemical Characterization of the Α- Glucosidase of the Digestive Juice of the Snail Limicolria Flammea (Müller 1774).

Author(s):Saki Suomion Justin -- Sea Tehi Bernard -- Koffi Kouame Mathias -- Soro Yade Rene -- KRA Kouassi Aboutou s -- Diopoh Kore J
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 376-388
In this study we are interested by the α-glucosidase, a protein biocatalyst from the digestive juice of a snail Limicolaria flammea which we purified by the chromatographic methods. Then the physico-chemical characteristics of this enzyme were determined. With a specific activity of the crude extract of 4.31 U/mg, purification have been done on Sephacryl S-200 HR gel then, specific activity has passed to 34.17 U/mg with purification factor of 7,93.With Anx-sepharose 4 fast flow gel, specific activity increased to 92.58U/mg with purification factor of 21.48 and 147 U/mg on phenyl-Sepharose CL 6B with purification factor of 34.11. The apparent molecular weights of the α-glucosidase purified on gel filtration (64,000 Da) and by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel (68,200 Da) were nearly identical. With a stability zone of pH between 4 and 7.5, the α- glucosidase had its maximum activity at pH 6.5. Optimum temperature of hydrolysis was obtained at 45°C and was stable at 37 to 40°C. The study of substrate specificity showed that para-nitrophenyl-α-D glucopyranoside and sucrose are hydrolyzed by the enzyme. It was inhibited by Cu2+, Ni2+, Hg2+ and activated by Mn2+. Ideal conditions for activity of this enzyme were known therefore it could be used to achieve synthesis.

On The Rediscovery and Extended Distribution of Musa Cheesmanii Musaceae from North-East India

Author(s):Alfred Joe -- Sreejith P. E. -- M. Sabu
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 1-4
Musa cheesmanii is rediscovered after 57 years. A note on its extended distribution is also discussed. Detailed description and photographs are provided for easy identification.
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