Environmental Sciences

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Evaluation of Leaf Extract of Some Medicinal Wild Plants on the Growth and Sporulation of Paecilomyces Lilacinus

Author(s):Rushda Sharf -- Hisamuddin -- Abbasi -- Ambreen akhtar
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 280-283
In vitro experiment was conducted to determine the effect of leaf extracts of five medicinal wild plant viz, Chenopodium album, Eclipta prostrata, Euphorbia pulcherima, Oxalis corniculata and Stellaria media on the growth and sporulation of fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus. The effect of the leaf extracts of these medicinal wild plant was noted at the different time interval such as, 24hrs, 48hrs, 72hrs, 96hrs and 120hrs. After 120 hrs the maximum mycelial growth was observed in Oxalis corniculata and minimum in Euphorbia pulcherima. However maximum number of spores/cm2 was recorded in Eclipta prostrata and minimum in Stellaria media.

A Critical Review on Agronomic Management of Pests and Diseases in Chilli

Author(s):K.Sridhar -- V.Rajesh -- S.Omprakash
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 284-289

Land Degradation and Socio- Economic Development in the Bolgatanga Municipality: The Gender Perspectives

Author(s):M. M. Braimah -- T. Salifu -- D. Oppong-Sekyere -- M. M. Akpalu
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 290-296
The research was conducted in the Bolgatanga Municipality. Nyariga and Zaare Amoabiisi communities were purposively sampled for the study. In all, thirty-three (33) questionnaires were administered to thirty-three households within the two communities in the Municipality. The study sought to find out the causes of land degradation and the socio-economic development of the people in the study area. The data analyzed was based on age grouping, sex composition of the respondents, household size, crops planted, type of animals reared, methods of land preparation, fertilizer application, among others. At the end of the study, it was found out that, 83% of the respondents agreed that over-cultivation of land accounted for land degradation in the communities, whiles 79% indicated that, settlement expansion is also responsible for the problem. Eighty percent (80%) of the respondents agreed that, over-grazing of their livestock in the area had seriously affected the quality of the soil thereby causing rapid land degradation. However, 1% to 2% of the respondents disagreed. It is therefore, recommended that, farmers should incorporate legumes, which have the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen, into the soil and also improve the soil structure, hence, the preservation of the soil fertility.

Geographical Distribution of Phytophthora Palmivora in Different Olive Growing Regions in Morocco

Author(s):Mohamed Chliyeh -- Youssef Rhimini -- Karima Selmaoui -- Amina Ouazzani Touhami -- Abdelkarim Filali-Maltouf -- Cherkaoui El Modafar -- Abdelmajid Moukhli -- Ahmed Oukabli -- Rachid Benkirane -- Allal Douira
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 297-303
Phytophthora palmivora, causative agent of olive wilting was searched during the spring 2012 and summer 2013 in different olive-growing regions of Morocco: Meknès, Souk Larbaa, Kénitra, Sefrou, Ouazzane, Marrakech (Azouzia, Aataouia, Ait Aourir, Sraghna, Tamnsourt, Jaidate, Tassaout…) and in the nurseries of Sidi Taibi. It was isolated from the roots and stems of olive plants and trees growing in nurseries and in the fields of different regions with varying percentages: Souk Larbaa (85 %), Sidi Taibi nurseries (73.6%), Aattaouia (64%), Jaidate (47 %), Sraghna (40 %) and Tassaout (32 %). The importance and the origin of this disease have been discussed in this study.

Heterosis Studies for Grain Yield and Its Component Traits in Single Cross Hybrids of Maize (Zea Mays L.)

Author(s):V. Rajesh -- S. Sudheer Kumar -- V. Narsimha Reddy -- A. Siva sankar
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 304-306
A line × tester set was obtained by crossing 15 inbred lines with 3 testers in maize. Forty five F1`s along with 18 parents (15 lines and 3 testers) and two standard checks were evaluated in Randomized Block Design with three replications for eleven characters during kharif, 2011. Out of 45 crosses, 42 crosses over better parent and 28 crosses over standard check (DHM 117) significantly out yielded for grain yield. The crosses 5050 × BML 10, 3511 × BML 7, 1234 × BML 10, 1234 × BML 13 and 5050 × BML 7 had high mean performance and standard heterosis over check DHM 117 for grain yield per plant and other yield contributing characters like number of kernels per row, 100-kernel weight, number of kernel rows per ear, ear girth and ear length. Thus these crosses possess high heterosis which can be exploited commercially for higher yield in maize.

Assessing The Socio-Cultural Factors That Affect Women’s Contribution To Food Security In The Kasena Nankana Municipality, Upper-East Region, Ghana

Author(s):Maurice M. Braimah -- Isaac Gibberson Dukuh -- Daniel Oppong-Sekyere -- Prince Hasimu Momori
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 307-316
Women play a very vital role in household food security in most developing countries including Ghana. However, they are constrained by a variety of socio-cultural and economic as well as institutional barriers. This study therefore seeks to assess women’s contribution to household food security in the Kasena-Nankana Municipality. Descriptive survey design was adopted, employing both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies. Observations, focus group discussions, interviews, key informant interviews and questionnaires were used as primary data, and other relevant data, as secondary sources, were used to gather relevant information for analysis and discussions. Purposive sampling was used to select 160 participants from 2,049 women in six communities for the study. The findings of the study revealed57.3% reacted positively towards contribution to household food security while 84.4% were into agricultural production. Almost all (83.8%) of the respondents indicated that they undertake crop production. A little more than eighty percent (81.25%) mentioned that they cultivate groundnut. More than three-quarters (75.63%) indicated that they cultivate rice. The study further revealed that 76.25% and 65.63% of the respondents were into beans and maize production respectively. Eighty-two(82%) were engaged in animal production. Respondents (43%) indicated they engaged in food processing, 37% engaged in farm labor and 20% in trading of farm produce. The main methods of processing of food crops, from the study, were threshing, winnowing, milling and drying. Constraints facing women were found to include their non- involvement in traditional rituals, non-inclusion in the decision- making process. The women however were successful in their quest to achieve food security. About 93% were aware of government policies in place to enhance women participation in food security.Therefore, in order to improve the household food security and up-grade women’s roles in this regard, the prevailing problems in the Kasena Nankana Municipality need concerted efforts from all concerned bodies.

Evaluation of Locally Available Herbs and Spices on Physical, Biochemical and Economical Parameters on Broiler Production

Author(s):M. M. Hossain -- A. J. Howlader -- M. N. Islam -- M. A. H. Beg
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 317-323
In this study, locally available eleven herbs and spices were selected in broiler diet to evaluate the growth performance, some biochemical and economical parameters of broiler. Different herbs like- cumin, myrobalan, turmeric, garlic, ginger, mushroom, black cumin, coriander, cinnamon, chilli powder and neam leaves were applied on 390 broiler chicks. A basal diet was supplemented with 1g/L antibiotic (positive control), 0g antibiotic (negative control), 1% dose of concentration of cumin, myrobalan, turmeric, garlic, ginger, mushroom, black cumin, coriander, cinnamon, chilli powder and neam leaves. At the age of 28 days, the FCR value of chilli powder, cinnamon, antibiotics, and black cumin were better (lower) than control. Significantly higher (p<0.05) dressing percentage was found in black cumin compared to the control. In this research, black cumin, cinnamon and antibiotics were showed significantly (p<0.05) lower blood glucose level than control. At 28 days of age, blood cholesterol was significantly lower (p<0.05) in neam leaves and black cumin than antibiotics and control. All treatments were significantly (p<0.05) higher antibody SP ratio for Gumboro disease compared to the control. Black cumin and cinnamon were significantly (p<0.05) higher antibody SP ratio for Newcastle disease compared to the antibiotics and control. All treatments were found significantly lower (p<0.05) E. coli population than the control. In this research cinnamon, antibiotics, black cumin and chilli were significantly (p<0.05) more profitable compared to the control. In conclusion, 1% black cumin, 1% cinnamon and 1% chilli powder were significantly (p<0.05) better for FCR, body growth, cholesterol level, sugar level in blood, immunity level, cecal microbial population, profit per bird, benefit cost ratio and can be used as good alternative of antibiotics in broiler diet.

Canopy Growth, Irrigation Water Use Efficiency and Relative Water Content of Chickpea under Acclimation To Gradual Water Deficit Conditions

Author(s):Nahid Niari Khamssi -- Kazem Ghasemi Golezani -- Saeed Zehtab Abdollah Najaphy
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 324-331
Two field experiments were undertaken in 2007 and 2008 to evaluate the effect of gradual imposition of water deficit stress on percentage ground cover (PGC), irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE), relative water content (RWC), grain yield (YG) and biomass (BM) of three Kabuli and desi chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars. Both experiments were arranged as split-plot, based on randomized complete block design in three replications. The irrigation treatments [well watered (I1: 70 mm evaporation from class A pan), gradual water deficit (I2 and I3: 70…90…110…130 and 70…100…130 mm evaporation from class A pan, respectively) and water deficit conditions (I4: 130 mm evaporation from class A pan)] were assigned to main plots and cultivars were allocated to sub plots. PGC, IWUE, BM and YG were decreased as water limitation increased. These reductions were only significant under water deficit (I4), compared with control (I1) for PGC, IWUE, BM and YG. IWUE was not significantly different among I1 (well watered), I2 and I3 (gradual water deficit) treatments. Although increasing irrigation intervals from I1 to I4 caused a small non significant reduction in RWC, but it reduced IWUE about 29% in I4 rather than I1. All characters included in this study (viz., PGC, IWUE, RWC and BM) were significantly correlated with YG. Non significant differences among I1, I2 and I3 treatments for YG and IWUE, suggest that I3 can be a more appropriate irrigation treatment for chickpea to obtain optimum yield and to save the water (up to 25%).

Evaluation and Selection of Potential Parents Tolerant To Bombyx Mori Nuclear Polyhedro Virus (Bmnpv) For Development of Disease Resistant Hybrids

Author(s):L. Vijaya Lakshmi -- P. Sujathamma -- V. Sivaprasad
Journal: Interrnational Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences
Publisher:
Abstract
| Pages: 332-336
Bombyx mori Nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) causes nuclear polyhedrosis in silkworm which is one of the dominant viral diseases noticed in almost all sericultural areas in the country. The tolerance in silkworm breeds have physiological and genetic origins that are controlled by polygenes. The present work relates to the evaluation and selection of silkworm breeds tolerant to BmNPV among the germplasm stocks available at Andhra Pradesh state Sericulture Research and Development Institute (APSSRDI), Hindupur. The silkworm breeds were inoculated with the viral suspension of (2 x 106/ml) BmNPV PIB’s by smearing onto mulberry leaves @ 1ml/100 larvae. Eleven bivoltine oval and nine bivoltine peanut silkworm breeds exhibiting real tolerance to BmNPV infection were shortlisted and further evaluated under three trials. Based on the overall mean performance and economic merit over the three trials, 5 each of bivoltine oval and peanut silkworm breeds were identified as potential resource material for further breeding programme.
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