Languages & Linguistics

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Early Writings of the Philologist K.Cipo in Service of the National Cause

Author(s):Abdulla Ballhysa
Journal: International Journal of Literature, Linguistics & Interdisciplinary Studies
Publisher:IISTE & IPIS
Abstract
| Pages: 8-11
Cipo started his way towards science inseparable from that of his country and the Albanian nation, walking in the same street started quite early by scholars and intellectuals that put their passion and scientific work into the service of the national cause. This can clearly be seen in the writings of 1918s in the newspaper "The assembly" that was published in Rome, in Italian. It is the time when Albania had to be known not only geographically and politically, as it was not just a ‘geographic expression’, but also for its wellknown people and personalities in various fields of knowledge. His intellectual contemporary achievements in linguistics in general, and albanology in particular distinguished in those writings, as well as a devoted patriot who believed that he could serve his homeland with his pen. Furthermore, the pen of this scholar further elevates the national issue and makes it known in areas where Albanians, due to the historical conditions and circumstances, were not mentioned. Here he sets foot not with dither, but with the confidence of a professional, and authoritative scholar. The same must be said about writing essays in the field of literature and literary criticism. The aim of this paper is that through analysis and synthesis, comparing and approaching Cipo’s writings in that period, to contribute and give more arguments in favor of the thesis that the Albanians, Cipo as an outstanding patriot as well, never saw science, literature and culture in general detached from national issues. On the contrary, they put it in its service.

Reference Literature as Bank of Human Resisted Treasury

Author(s):Rahim Ombashi
Journal: International Journal of Literature, Linguistics & Interdisciplinary Studies
Publisher:IISTE & IPIS
Abstract
| Pages: 12-18
In novels The Streets of Hell and The Hell is Broken, continues to show the Visar Zhiti without having time to remember, following the show, the outline of the present without sacrificing its neutrality. Trend is not seized by copyright, avoids the inventor fantasies, feeling safe in the factuality and its documentary. The purpose of this study is the identification of realistic features in his texts, which sprouted inside the purgatory hell, surrounded by barbed wire, because reveal common truths, and prove the author’s exquisite eye for the human being in its tragic. Not being a visitor but resident where life is wounded, manages to reveal deeply hidden man, shadows of Plato’s shadows, beauty of soul human dignity that is not blemished. Specific real situations and real life human, translated into its own system of literary marker, dream and emerge as a threat, when a man massacre his moment, to steal the past. Image which embraces not lacking detail, and real gesture called a witness and not as a figure, thus creating the real figure. These type of action as the world undo makers, targeted at home and in Shkodra, where they formed (as asserted itself), as enable the recognition and discovery of oneself as being constrained within its bark or chestnut bark barbed. It appeared common concrete life, truth, beauty unified with. The paper contributes to the history of literature and poetics.

Kadare’s Newly-Formed Words with the Suffix -shëm

Author(s):Luljeta Adili-Çeliku, Jehona Rushidi-Rexhepi, Jeta Rushidi
Journal: International Journal of Literature, Linguistics & Interdisciplinary Studies
Publisher:IISTE & IPIS
Abstract
| Pages: 19-25
If a scholar studies the language that a particular writer uses, that implies that the scholar also endorses that writer`s work. Language itself is alive and just like anything that is alive; it can be subject to injuries and damages. Ismail Kadare is a visionary author who senses the danger that a language may encounter. That is the reason why he goes on a mission to protect and enrich the Albanian language with newly-formed words. Using almost each and every one of the suffixes and prefixes available in Albainan while applying the internal word-forming rules that the Albanian language dictates, Ismail Kadare has created a vast number of new words that carry an immense lexical and stylistic value, without being morphologically incorrect. In this paper we study Ismail Kadare`s newly-formed words using the suffix – shëm, thus offering our contribution to the studying of Ismail Kadare`s newly-formed vocabulary.

Mary Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Rights of Woman as a Feminist Critique of Male Definitions of Civilization

Author(s):Mohamed Gariti, Sabrina Zerar
Journal: International Journal of Literature, Linguistics & Interdisciplinary Studies
Publisher:IISTE & IPIS
Abstract
| Pages: 26-34
This paper seeks to demonstrate that Mary Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Rights of Woman is a feminist critique of male definitions of civilization. Civilization is the master word in her essay, and she exposes the vestiges of “barbarism in European” societies or civilization because of the male-centered public sphere. Yet she is optimistic as to the possibility of salvaging civilization through a project of a future enlightened society propped by a rational political system and a rational morality based on a well-reflected educational system. This project proposes a revision of the enlightenment philosophers’ definition of education like that of J. J. Rousseau and Dr. Gregory and the ideological construction of femininity that runs counter to the project of building a new civilization. In parallel to the language of “folly” and “civilization,” she also deploys the language of prison, the clinic, and sexuality that Foucault has also amply documented. She is particularly harsh with those who seek to imprison women in their own bodies by urging them to care much more about personal accomplishment than the development of virtues that will ensure the immortality of their souls. Through her critique of male definitions of civilization, Wollstonecraft entered one of the professions, which until then was denied to women by the gender boundaries set by the ideology of separate spheres.

Deconstructing Gender and Myth in Margaret Atwood’s The Penelopiad

Author(s):Shaista Irshad, Niroj Banerji
Journal: International Journal of Literature, Linguistics & Interdisciplinary Studies
Publisher:IISTE & IPIS
Abstract
| Pages: 35-41
Margaret Atwood’s novella The Penelopiad presents a revisionary account of Homer’s Odyssey from the contemporary position. In this paper it is shown that how Atwood not only deconstructs gender but also the mythical version of male narrative of Homer’s Odyssey by giving voice to the female characters that otherwise remain imprisoned in the traditional gender stereotypes. The mythical patterns and believes turn out to be instrumental in encapsulating and shielding the reality of gender. The truth behind Penelope’s celebrated chastity and Odysseus’s courage is deftly investigated to prove the hollowness and instability of gendered identities.

Formation of Integrating Perceptions through Dual Treatments

Author(s):Svjetllana Kërënxhi, Pranvera Gjoci
Journal: International Journal of Literature, Linguistics & Interdisciplinary Studies
Publisher:IISTE & IPIS
Abstract
| Pages: 42-55
Schön, Gray and Tall have given their valuable contributions in teaching and reflective practice. Based on their work, the researchers have built a new model in learning and teaching system, which includes dual treatments in elementary education. This likewise aims for the integration of perceptions in students. As an element that influences in a positive way in critical thinking, integrating perception increases significantly the effectiveness of learning among students. We believe that this model will be an experience that will help teachers in their teaching process.

Linguistics with a Small ‘I’: Toward a Deictic Shift Theory in the Exploration of Wordsworth’s “Ode: Intimations of Immortality”

Author(s):Mounir Ben Zid
Journal: International Journal of Literature, Linguistics & Interdisciplinary Studies
Publisher:IISTE & IPIS
Abstract
| Pages: 56-64
The interpretation of Wordsworth’s Ode: Intimations of Immortality has been a moot point for several decades and is still notoriously a battleground of interpretative disagreement. Although the poem has been analyzed many times over in accordance with the tenets of different critical approaches, it continues to provide room for controversy. An ancillary to this debate has been the need to re-examine the poem according to the premises and linguistic tools offered by the New Stylistics. The present paper explores the poem from a literary point of view with an attempt to consider the contributions of Humanist Criticism. Then the poem is discussed from a linguistic point of view with a Coup d’essai to explore the contributions of Critical Linguistics. Using linguistics as a slave to criticism rather than its master, the paper proposes a tentative strategy for tackling the poem through deictic shift theory and an examination of relevant linguistic tools, namely: deixis, tense, and aspect and semantic agentivity.

Challanges of Change in Compulsory Educational System

Author(s):Elda Talka, Arburim Iseni
Journal: International Journal of Literature, Linguistics & Interdisciplinary Studies
Publisher:IISTE & IPIS
Abstract
| Pages: 65-72
This study purports to analyze the current educational Albanian reality created after the reform in content and structure made in the compulsory educational system to change it from 8th to 9th grade education, pointing out its advantages and disadvantages, for both teachers and students, in regard with their adaptation to the new reality. This study has gone through four phases: the compiling of general outline of research; the preparation of questionnaires and interviewing questions for teachers; the gathering of data based on observations in 9th grade schools; the survey of the gathered information for certain conclusions and suggestions on this issue. The innovation introduced by the Ministry of Education which adds another year to the existing system, brought about improvements of the system, but it was undoubtedly accompanied by problems. It is to be emphasized that in Albanian language there are very few studies on this issue. Therefore this research will contribute not only in the recognition of this transformation that Albanian school underwent but also in the introduction of the new challenges of change for the teachers, while trying to reach a good classroom management and higher levels of quality in the process of teaching.

The Emotional Strength of Political Catchwords Illustrated by Examples from Albanian

Author(s):Ema Kristo
Journal: International Journal of Literature, Linguistics & Interdisciplinary Studies
Publisher:IISTE & IPIS
Abstract
| Pages: 73-85
The necessity in politics to express conflicts of interest through publicist means in the media field often leads to the use of catchwords in politics language. These words are mostly used by different social groups in public speeches, in the conflict of thoughts as well as in the fight for political power with content, interests and different aims. The slogan words provoke different emotional reactions and bear a positive or negative connotation depending on people’s experience in communication. Catchwords are used in an appealing way in discussions about particular topics causing the recipients to have an affective attitude. Apart from the important role they play in political propaganda they bear affective feelings additionally. This feature gives them a special dynamic: The words not only reach to cause the recipients’ enthusiasm, based on their emotionality, but they motivate to act as well.
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