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The Greek Biblical Manuscripts in Albania The Purple Codex of Berat and the Golden Codex of Anthimos

Author(s):Dion Tushi
Journal: International Journal of Literature, Linguistics & Interdisciplinary Studies
Publisher:IISTE & IPIS
Abstract
| Pages: 159-166
The aim of the article is to underline some of the characteristic features of two of the oldest biblical manuscripts found in Albania and more specifically of “The Purple Codex of Berat” and “Anthimus’ Golden Codex”, or as they are known in scientific circles the “Codex Purpurseus Beratinus Φ” and “Codex Aureus Anthimus”, dating back in the VIth and IXth centuries respectively. The Purple Codex of Berat (known also as Beratinus – 1) , in spite of its indisputable values related to its age, is of great importance for the textological critique, which deals with the historical study of the biblical texts. Meanwhile, the second Codex known as the “Golden Codex Anthimus”, so called by Batiffol in honor of the Bishop of Berat during the mid-nineteenth century. The Golden Codex of Anthimus carries uncommon artistic values. The description made to each codex implies specific data, graphical ways of writing, decorations and of each codex. At the same time there are mentioned the first researchers of these codices who have spoken to them. There are also concisely described other valuable manuscripts which do not exist anymore. In this article we provide important clues about the history of these manuscripts, the risks and challenges they have undergone to survive, as well as the environment in which they are held and continue to be hold. In conjunction to that, the reader will also be acquainted to some recent data mainly provided by Italian manuscript specialists, who have declared themselves mainly about "The Purple Codex of Berat". This article aims at providing a more complete description of these codices as well as the story they carry.

The Christian Saints in the (Micro)toponymy of Albania

Author(s):Albert Riska
Journal: International Journal of Literature, Linguistics & Interdisciplinary Studies
Publisher:IISTE & IPIS
Abstract
| Pages: 167-176
This study lists a group of Albanian toponyms that derive from the names of the Christian saints. The presentation of such toponyms includes the geographic location as well as the variants in which they appear. The different variants of these toponyms together with the different phonetic composition are of great interest from a dialectical and historical–linguistic stand point. The large number of the toponyms and the variety of their forms present a number of problems. However, by way of introduction, we have limited our research to a few linguistic and ethno cultural issues such as dialectical differences between the variants of the toponyms, the phonetic developments of the Saints’ names vis a vis the Latin forms, (taking into consideration that most of them have come into the Albanian language through Latin) and the short form of the Saints’ name, etc. The linguistic analyses indicate that the conversion to Christianity of Albanias is a very ancient process.

The Role and Importance of Administrative Acts

Author(s):Besarta Pllana
Journal: International Journal of Literature, Linguistics & Interdisciplinary Studies
Publisher:IISTE & IPIS
Abstract
| Pages: 177-185
Classification of administrative act is quite complex and as such depends on legal systems of different countries, by giving them various elements, even though we mainly deal with the same forms. In this way,various theories are presented in the science of administrative law in endeavors for regulating the diversity of administrative acts, where they are grouped and regulated in various categories.In this regard, special role in division and regulation, namely the classification of legal acts, have also played the various power doctrines, where administrative acts are named according to the power they have: in legislative, judicial and administrative acts. In this work, we are going to analyze the importance of administrative acts.

Compare and Contrast of the Role of Different Themes towards Nation Building in the Selected Novels

Author(s):Hamid Farahmandian
Journal: International Journal of Literature, Linguistics & Interdisciplinary Studies
Publisher:IISTE & IPIS
Abstract
| Pages: 8-14
Nation building has been one of the most significant issues recently and mainly in the countries with the experience of colonization. Hereafter, this paper aims to clarify that most of colonized countries pursue a kind of same aim for indicate their countries identities in the globe. The related novels will be Novel without Name authored by Guong Thu Huong, Ilustrado written by Miguel Sujuco and finally The Child of All Nations by Pramoedya Ananta Toer which are going to under analysis from different angles like Identity and characters.

African-American Stereotype Threat in O’Neill’s The Emperor Jones (1920)

Author(s):Mouloud SIBER, Arezki KHELIFA
Journal: International Journal of Literature, Linguistics & Interdisciplinary Studies
Publisher:IISTE & IPIS
Abstract
| Pages: 15-22
Our paper has tackled the issue of African American stereotype threat as it is developed in Eugene O’Neill’s play, The Emperor Jones (1920). The play explores a situation in which the protagonist’s belongingness to the African-American group is more a liability than an asset to his social achievement. This results from the negative stereotypes that his group is associated with and which have a disruptive psychological impact on Jones. In the early twentieth century nativist America, opportunities for the blacks’ social and economic elevation were scarce, and when they achieved some status, they had to undergo the whites’ oppressive stigmatisation as they suffered from the demeaning effect of their blackness and the negative stereotypes they were associated with. By making his black protagonist emperor, O’Neill advances him in society. This allows him explore the effects of Jones’s blackness and the resulting negative stereotypes on this social achievement. Ignorance, superstition and irrationality are the most important stereotypes that have a disrupting effect on Brutus Jones in the forest. In sum, the paper has borrowed the concept of stereotype threat as social psychologists Claude M. Steele and Joshua Aronson have coined it in 1995 and applied it to O’Neill’s play.

The Fantastic and Semi-Fantastic Element in Kuteli’s Short Stories

Author(s):MSc. Rovena Vata
Journal: International Journal of Literature, Linguistics & Interdisciplinary Studies
Publisher:IISTE & IPIS
Abstract
| Pages: 23-28
What motivates the writing of the following article is the extended representation of mythical and demonic figures in the prose fiction of Mitrush Kutelii. Among these figures the reader can found: the nymphs, the hours, the shtoizovalle… This study appears in a context of descriptive analysis, through which these figures are represented in the text, and their role in the structure of the narration. The fantastic and half-fantastic element in Kuteli’s short stories appears not only through the presence of these creatures, but also through the structure of his storytelling. Special emphasis will be given to the structure of the prosaic action of the demonic characters, which are carriers of the prosaic storytelling, and as such they are narrated within an intermediate world, between the real and the imaginary. In these stories Kuteli’s storytelling is represented in the threshold of two worlds: the world of the living and the world of the dead. The living characters are dying and presented in the agony of death, and the dead ones, through diverse forms and manners, return from the world of the dead to the world of the living. The study and analysis of the structural form in Kuteli’s narrative world contributes in carrying forward the studies in the field of narration theory and affirms Mitrush Kuteli’s propitious work in the evolution of the Albanian prose.

The Blot of the Past as the Uncertainty of the Future

Author(s):Mr. Gjylë Totaj
Journal: International Journal of Literature, Linguistics & Interdisciplinary Studies
Publisher:IISTE & IPIS
Abstract
| Pages: 29-32
“The loser” is a pessimistic novel in which is reflected the modern man, plunged into the life problems and hullabaloo. By itself the title marks lost of the reason against the actions that already are irrevocable as the improvement, so this novel is a conglomerate topics of the phenomena’s inside the Albanian world, in which world the feature of alienation is present, downfall and degeneration of former morale values. Here the life is challenged by many of its ideological systems which in case if you are not appropriate to them you can be expelled without any justification. “The loser” is a novel of life experience from the bitter past that aims to find calmness in the conventional order of our life.

Literary Evolution of Murat Isaku’s Lyrics

Author(s):MSc. Arlind Farizi
Journal: International Journal of Literature, Linguistics & Interdisciplinary Studies
Publisher:IISTE & IPIS
Abstract
| Pages: 33-38
Back in the sixties of the 20th century, when in the heart of Phenomenology was developed the theory of reception of Hans Robert Jauss32 and it was promoted the notion of Alterity (otherness)33. According to this viewpoint the phenomenon of “literary evolution” was seen as a change, or permanent transformation of literary awerness. Literary consciousness is relative to what was found also the answer to the question why literary works that follow are not neither better nor worse from the previous ones, but are different. Books do not change, but readers do. Thus, in the science of literature these literary works were disused due to unwanted connotations, not only the biological term “evolution” and the economic term “development” but also the social term “revolution” and instead of them, in the post-modern period began to be used terms, such as: “transformation”, “innovative process”, ”dynamics”, “change”. With this parantheses we have accessed in one of the main problems of life and functioning of literary art of the word. In the poetries of Murat Isaku “Literary Evolution” is implied the transformation, change, the aesthetic evolution of the poetry from the first collection “Zani i Malit” (1960) (The Mountain Echo) within the system of the certain poetry and how it changes despite time conventions up to the last collection of poetries “M’i këpusin kokrrat e frymës (2007).” (They’re plucking out my few deep breaths).

Foreign Words in Textbooks

Author(s):Elona Limaj
Journal: International Journal of Literature, Linguistics & Interdisciplinary Studies
Publisher:IISTE & IPIS
Abstract
| Pages: 45-48
Study on the presence of foreign terminology in the Albanian language includes a wide gamma of issues. In this work, I would like to focus on problem of use of foreign words in textbooks, as an issue directly affecting the general education of youth. Based on legal norms in force, textbooks in the entire Albanian territory should be written in literary language, but, it is noted that our textbooks are full of international and non-international foreign words or foreign words that have their own equivalent in Albanian language. The object of this study were the textbooks of Albanian elementary and high school education, in which is also felt the presence of foreign words. Meanwhile, language policies should focus on enrichment of the pupils and high school students’ vocabulary and difficulties in this respect.
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