Applied Sciences

Online ISSN: 2076-3417

Print ISSN: XXXX-XXXX



Publisher: MDPI
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Sustainable Utility of Magnetically Recyclable Nano-Catalysts in Water: Applications in Organic Synthesis

Author(s):

Manoj B. Gawande -- Anuj K. Rathi -- Paula S. Branco -- Rajender S. Varma


Abstract
| Pages: 656-674
Magnetically recyclable nano-catalysts and their use in aqueous media is a perfect combination for the development of greener sustainable methodologies in organic synthesis. It is well established that magnetically separable nano-catalysts avoid waste of catalysts or reagents and it is possible to recover >95% of catalysts, which is again recyclable for subsequent use. Water is the ideal medium to perform the chemical reactions with magnetically recyclable nano-catalysts, as this combination adds tremendous value to the overall benign reaction process development. In this review, we highlight recent developments inthe use of water and magnetically recyclable nano-catalysts (W-MRNs) for a variety of organic reactions namely hydrogenation, condensation, oxidation, and Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reactions, among others.

Dry Distillation of Radioiodine from TeO2 Targets

Author(s):

Jesper Fonslet -- Jacek Koziorowski


Abstract
| Pages: 675-683
As medical cyclotrons are becoming more abundant, 123I and 124I are getting more attention as alternatives to 131I for diagnostics of thyroid disease. Both 123I and 124I provide better diagnostics, deliver less dose to patients and both reduce the risk of thyroid stunning, facilitating subsequent therapy. Dry distillation of radioiodine from tellurium dioxide targets has become the standard approach to producing these radioiodines. Setting up such a production of radioiodine is associated with a lengthy optimization of the process and for this purpose natural tellurium is often used for economical reasons. In this paper, the distillation parameters are scrutinized to ensure optimal distillation temperature, in order to minimize time spent and prevent loss of expensive target material. It is further demonstrated how the individual iodine isotopes, produced from proton bombardment of natTe, will diffuse out of the target in a time dependent ratio. We believe the effect is due to the isotopes having their maximum cross section at different energies. The individual isotopes produced will thus have their highest concentration at different depths in the target. This results in individual mean diffusion lengths and diffusion times for the different isotopes.

Properties of Thermosets Derived from Chemically Modified Triglycerides and Bio-Based Comonomers

Author(s):

Evan S. Beach -- Zheng Cui -- Paul T. Anastas -- Mingjiang Zhan -- Richard P. Wool


Abstract
| Pages: 684-693
A series of materials was prepared by curing acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) and dibutyl itaconate (DBI) or ethyl cinnamate (EC) comonomers to provide examples of thermosets with a high proportion of bio-based carbon, in accordance with the principles of green chemistry. The comonomers, representative of cellulose-derived (DBI) or potentially lignin-derived (EC) raw materials, were tested at levels of 25%, 33%, and 50% by mass and the resulting products were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and dynamic mechanical analysis. Both DBI and EC were incorporated into the thermosets to a high extent (>90%) at all concentrations tested. The AESO-DBI and AESO-EC blends showed substantial degradation at 390–400 °C, similar to pure AESO. Glass transition temperatures decreased as comonomer content increased; the highest Tg of 41.4 °C was observed for AESO-EC (3:1) and the lowest Tg of 1.4 °C was observed for AESO-DBI (1:1). Accordingly, at 30 °C the storage modulus values were highest for AESO-EC (3:1, 37.0 MPa) and lowest for AESO-DBI (1:1, 1.5 MPa).

A Review of Cavity Design for Kerr Lens Mode-Locked Solid-State Lasers

Author(s):

Shai Yefet -- Avi Pe'er


Abstract
| Pages: 694-724
We provide a critical review of the fundamental concepts of Kerr lens mode-locking (KLM), along with a detailed description of the experimental considerations involved in the realization of a mode-locked oscillator. In addition, we review recent developments that overcome inherent limitations and disadvantages in standard KLM lasers. Our review is aimed mainly at readers who wish to realize/maintain such an oscillator or for those who wish to better understand this major experimental tool.

Retraction: Seokbin Lim. Steady State Analytical Equation of Motion of Linear Shaped Charges Jet Based on the Modification of Birkhoff Theory. Appl. Sci. 2012, 2, 35-45

Author(s):

Seokbin Lim


Abstract
| Pages: 725-725
The following article: doi:10.3390/app2010035 [1] has been retracted by the author due to problems in the hydrocode simulation configuration.