Axioms

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A Method for Negotiating Various Customer Requirements for Public Service Design

Author(s):

Yoshiki Shimomura -- Yutaro Nemoto -- Fumiya Akasaka -- Koji Kimita


Abstract
| Pages: 1-9
A method for public service design, which enables designers to realize high-value added service design by considering plural different customer groups in parallel, is proposed. In General, service designs focus on specific customers. However, because of the diversity of customer requirements, it is difficult to design a public service that addresses the requirements of all customers. To achieve higher customer satisfaction, it is imperative to summarize the requirements of various customers and design a service by considering customers belonging to different categories. In this article, we propose a method that enables highly public service development by considering groups of various customers and minimizing customer dissatisfaction by adopting a group-decision-making approach. As a consequence, improvement of effectiveness of highly public service development can be expected.

Business Decision-Making Using Geospatial Data: A Research Framework and Literature Review

Author(s):

Michael A. Erskine -- Dawn G. Gregg -- Jahangir Karimi -- Judy E. Scott


Abstract
| Pages: 10-30
Organizations that leverage their increasing volume of geospatial data have the potential to enhance their strategic and organizational decisions. However, literature describing the best techniques to make decisions using geospatial data and the best approaches to take advantage of geospatial data’s unique visualization capabilities is limited. This paper reviews the use of geospatial visualization and its effects on decision performance, which is one of the many components of decision-making when using geospatial data. Additionally, this paper proposes a comprehensive model allowing researchers to better understand decision-making using geospatial data and provides a robust foundation for future research. Finally, this paper makes an argument for further research of information-presentation, task-characteristics, user-characteristics and their effects on decision-performance when utilizing geospatial data.

Second-Order Risk Constraints in Decision Analysis

Author(s):

Love Ekenberg -- Mats Danielson -- Aron Larsson -- David Sundgren


Abstract
| Pages: 31-45
Recently, representations and methods aimed at analysing decision problems where probabilities and values (utilities) are associated with distributions over them (second-order representations) have been suggested. In this paper we present an approach to how imprecise information can be modelled by means of second-order distributions and how a risk evaluation process can be elaborated by integrating procedures for numerically imprecise probabilities and utilities. We discuss some shortcomings of the use of the principle of maximising the expected utility and of utility theory in general, and offer remedies by the introduction of supplementary decision rules based on a concept of risk constraints taking advantage of second-order distributions.

The Three Laws of Thought, Plus One: The Law of Comparisons

Author(s):

Thomas L. Saaty


Abstract
| Pages: 46-49
The rules of logic are nearly 2500 years old and date back to Plato and Aristotle who set down the three laws of thought: identity, non-contradiction, and excluded middle. The use of language and logic has been adequate for us to develop mathematics, prove theorems, and create scientific knowledge. However, the laws of thought are incomplete. We need to extend our logical system by adding to the very old laws of thought an essential yet poorly understood law. It is a necessary law of thought that resides in our biology even deeper than the other three laws. It is related to the rudiments of how we as living beings, and even nonliving things, respond to influences as stimuli. It helps us discriminate between being ourselves and sensing that there is something else that is not ourselves that even amoebas seem to know. It is the intrinsic ability to sense and distinguish. This fourth law is the law of comparisons. Although it has been missing from our logical deductions it underlies the other three laws of thought because without it we cannot know what is and what is not.

A Hybrid Artificial Reputation Model Involving Interaction Trust, Witness Information and the Trust Model to Calculate the Trust Value of Service Providers

Author(s):

Gurdeep Singh Ransi -- Ziad Kobti


Abstract
| Pages: 50-63
Agent interaction in a community, such as the online buyer-seller scenario, is often uncertain, as when an agent comes in contact with other agents they initially know nothing about each other. Currently, many reputation models are developed that help service consumers select better service providers. Reputation models also help agents to make a decision on who they should trust and transact with in the future. These reputation models are either built on interaction trust that involves direct experience as a source of information or they are built upon witness information also known as word-of-mouth that involves the reports provided by others. Neither the interaction trust nor the witness information models alone succeed in such uncertain interactions. In this paper we propose a hybrid reputation model involving both interaction trust and witness information to address the shortcomings of existing reputation models when taken separately. A sample simulation is built to setup buyer-seller services and uncertain interactions. Experiments reveal that the hybrid approach leads to better selection of trustworthy agents where consumers select more reputable service providers, eventually helping consumers obtain more gains. Furthermore, the trust model developed is used in calculating trust values of service providers.

On Transcendental Numbers

Author(s):

Florin F. Nichita


Abstract
| Pages: 64-69
Transcendental numbers play an important role in many areas of science. This paper contains a short survey on transcendental numbers and some relations among them. New inequalities for transcendental numbers are stated in Section 2 and proved in Section 4. Also, in relationship with these topics, we study the exponential function axioms related to the Yang-Baxter equation.

Canonical Coordinates for Retino-Cortical Magnification

Author(s):

Luc Florack


Abstract
| Pages: 70-81
A geometric model for a biologically-inspired visual front-end is proposed, based on an isotropic, scale-invariant two-form field. The model incorporates a foveal property typical of biological visual systems, with an approximately linear decrease of resolution as a function of eccentricity, and by a physical size constant that measures the radius of the geometric foveola, the central region characterized by maximal resolving power. It admits a description in singularity-free canonical coordinates generalizing the familiar log-polar coordinates and reducing to these in the asymptotic case of negligibly-sized geometric foveola or, equivalently, at peripheral locations in the visual field. It has predictive power to the extent that quantitative geometric relationships pertaining to retino-cortical magnification along the primary visual pathway, such as receptive field size distribution and spatial arrangement in retina and striate cortex, can be deduced in a principled manner. The biological plausibility of the model is demonstrated by comparison with known facts of human vision.

Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Axioms in 2013

Author(s):

Axioms Editorial Office


Abstract
| Pages: 82-83
The editors of Axioms would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2013. [...]

Increasing Personal Value Congruence in Computerized Decision Support Using System Feedback

Author(s):

Bryan Hosack -- David Paradice


Abstract
| Pages: 84-108
The Theory of Universals in Values (TUV), a reliable and validated conceptualization of personal values used in psychology, is used to examine the effect of system feedback delivered by a Decision Support System (DSS) on personal values. The results indicate that value-based decision-making behavior can be influenced by DSS feedback to address value congruence in decision-making. User behavior was shown to follow the outcomes expected by operant theory when feedback was supportive and to follow the outcomes of reactance theory when feedback was challenging. This result suggests that practitioners and Information System (IS) researchers should consider user values when designing computerized decision feedback to adjust a system’s design such that the potential user backlash is avoided or congruence between organizational and personal values is achieved.

Optimization Models for Reaction Networks: Information Divergence, Quadratic Programming and Kirchhoff’s Laws

Author(s):

Julio Michael Stern -- Fabio Nakano


Abstract
| Pages: 109-118
This article presents a simple derivation of optimization models for reaction networks leading to a generalized form of the mass-action law, and compares the formal structure of Minimum Information Divergence, Quadratic Programming and Kirchhoff type network models. These optimization models are used in related articles to develop and illustrate the operation of ontology alignment algorithms and to discuss closely connected issues concerning the epistemological and statistical significance of sharp or precise hypotheses in empirical science.

Ricci Curvature on Polyhedral Surfaces via Optimal Transportation

Author(s):

Benoît Loisel -- Pascal Romon


Abstract
| Pages: 119-139
The problem of correctly defining geometric objects, such as the curvature, is a hard one in discrete geometry. In 2009, Ollivier defined a notion of curvature applicable to a wide category of measured metric spaces, in particular to graphs. He named it coarse Ricci curvature because it coincides, up to some given factor, with the classical Ricci curvature, when the space is a smooth manifold. Lin, Lu and Yau and Jost and Liu have used and extended this notion for graphs, giving estimates for the curvature and, hence, the diameter, in terms of the combinatorics. In this paper, we describe a method for computing the coarse Ricci curvature and give sharper results, in the specific, but crucial case of polyhedral surfaces.