Advances in Life Science and Technology

Online ISSN: 2225-062X

Print ISSN: 2224-7181



Publisher: International Institute for Science, Technology and Education 
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The Impact of Both Physical Exhaustion and Disruption of Circadian Rhythm on Blood Coagulation Factors in Rats

Author(s):

Kawther Faisal Amawi -- Mohammed Adel Salahat


Abstract
| Pages: 1-6
Effects of circadian rhythm and different durations of physical exercise on blood clotting and fibrinolytic systems were measured in 60 male Wistar rats. Rats were divided into control (n=20) and experimental groups (n=40). Blood samples were collected from rat tail tip at several stages; before and after physical activity in various functional conditions of pineal gland (activation and inhibition). The first group of rats were housed in absolutely light- conditions (inhibition phase) for 10 days ,while the other group was kept in absolutely dark room for 10 days , at ambient temperature 23ºC±2ºC. A standard rat diet and water were supplied ad labium. Our data showed that no statistically significant variation was found in blood clotting time and thrombin time of samples after a short – physical exercise in the normal subject, but there was a significant shortening in blood clotting time and thrombin time after strenuous exercise. Physical activity significantly prolonged clotting time in animals with inhibited pineal gland. Rats with activated pineal gland (dark phase), the clotting time prolonged after both durations (short and long exercise); thrombin generation time shortened. Conclusion: It is important that individuals who experience disturbances in their circadian cycle aware of their impact on the function of the pineal gland(i.e., clotting and fibrinolytic system, such as shift workers, jet lag, physical workers and even athletes who train heavily . Furthermore, individuals need also to consider the time of exposure and avoidance of light options which interfere with this system, including time of exercise and the use of melatonin agonists.

Diversity and Seasonal Variation of Soil Fungi Isolated from Surrounding Area of Upper Lake, Bhopal Madhya Pradesh

Author(s):

Aarti Kaushal -- Ranjana Singh


Abstract
| Pages: 1-3
Diversity and seasonal variation of soil fungi isolated from surrounding area of Upper Lake were studied for a period of twenty four months by using baiting and plating technique. A total of 55 genera and 94 species were recorded from surrounding area of Upper Lake. Out of the total 64 and 56 fungi in the summer season, 54 and 38 in winter and 42 and 32 in rainy season recorded in the year 2008-09 to 2009-2010 respectively. A marked seasonal variation in mycoflora has been found. Fungi have been divided in to Summer, Rainy and Winter types based on their occurance.Seasonality in the fungal flora was also correlated with varying ecologic factor viz. tem. Rainfall and relative humidity. In the present investigation mycoflora recorded was not much differ from previously reported soil fungi in different habitat.

The Relationship between the Molecular Epidemiology of Hepatitis C and the Best Measures to Prevent and Combat Infection and to Identify the Causes

Author(s):

Nawal S Faris -- Moh’d A Fararja


Abstract
| Pages: 1-3
Hepatitis C is an infectious disease affecting the liver, caused by the hepatitis C virus. The infection is often asymptomatic, but once established, chronic infection can progress to scarring of the liver (fibrosis), and advanced scarring (cirrhosis) which is generally apparent after many years. The aim of our study are strengthening of surveys of the cases of Hepatitis C, more knowledge of the causes leading to epidemics of hepatitis C, also knowing the risk factors which caused delay in the treatment of patients in the acute phase, then evaluate the number of persons who have the hepatitis C virus, finally molecular characterization and epidemiology of the isolated hepatitis C . In order to reach those goals we carried out a survey of 1929 adult patients in the Department of virology at Central Laboratory of the Ministry of Health in Amman the capital of Jordan between january 2010 to December 2011 using a bioelisa HCV 4.0 is an immunoenzymatic . Then total RNA have been extracted from the recovered HCV using standard protocols. After that molecular epidemiology was performed using standard methods for PCR . Finally detectable HCV RNA were submitted to treatment follow using Real Time PCR. a total of 1926 patients (1215 males, 711 females) were tested for anti-HCV antibodies, a total 149 patients were gave positive results for anti-HCV antibodies, with an overall prevalence of 9.%. The seroprevalence in males was approximately the double of that of females (66% vs 48%). The most commonly caused of HCV infection was blood transfusion( 68%). Kidney dialysis ( 17%). Centre for addiction ( 6%). unknown cause (9%)Form last results we conclude that the most cause of HCV is blood transfusion then Kidney dialysis.

Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Staphylococcus Aureus in Clinical Specimens

Author(s):

OPERE, Bolanle O. -- FASHOLA, Muibat O. -- ADESIDA, Solayide -- SMITH, Stella I. -- ADEBIYI, Oluwaseun A.


Abstract
| Pages: 1-5
The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in clinical samples and their susceptibility pattern to antibiotics. Standard microbiological and biochemical methods were used to screen 155 clinical specimens comprising of sputum, wound, urine and high vaginal swabs for S .aureus. Twenty eight (28) isolates was obtained from these samples. Antibiotic susceptibility results shows high percentage of sensitivity to gentamicin (89%,) azithromycin (89%), pefloxacin (79%) followed by erythromycin (68%) ciprofloxacin (61%) streptomycin (61%)and sparfloxacin (54%). A high resistance was recorded for cotrimaxazole (90%), amoxycillin (88%), ampicillin (73%), tetracycline (65%), cefuroxime and cephalexin (40%) each.

Haematologic Indices in Pulmonary Tuberculosis with or without HIV Co-Infection in South Eastern Nigeria

Author(s):

Amilo G. I -- Meludu S. C. -- Ele P. U -- Ezechukwu C. -- Onyenekwe C -- Ifeanyi Chukwu M


Abstract
| Pages: 1-7
To evaluate the changes in haematologic indices in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) with or without Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV) co-infection in South Eastern Nigeria. The study population included 116 subjects (60 = males; 56 = females), recruited from 2 study centers: mile 4 Hospital Abakaliki Ebonyi State and Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Teaching Hospital Nnewi, Anambra State, both in Nigeria. PTB + HIV (n = 20); PTB infection ( n = 27) and HIV sereopositive (n = 28). The PTB and HIV negative; control subjects were 41 (n = 41). Blood samples collected from subjects in Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) container were used for the analysis of the Haemtological cells count, packed cell volume (PCV) and Haemoglobin estimation using routine methods as described (Dacie and Lewis, 1984). HIV screening was done with Stat pak kit and confirmatory test by Western blot method. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was by Westergren method. Haemoglobin estimation (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV) values were significantly lower in patients with PTB (11.27±1.62 g/dl, 0.35±0.04 l/l) compared with control values (13.67±1.46 g/dl 0.41 ± 0.05 l/l) (p < 0.05). Patients with HIV seropositive showed significantly low PCV values of (0.36 ± 0.04 l/l) compared with the control subjects (0.41 ± 0.05 l/l) (p < 0.05). PTB patients showed higher TWBC counts (6062.5 ± 1481.83109/l) when compared those with HIV infection (3841.38±735.58 x 109/l) as well as normal control value (4363.64±551.66 x 109/l) (p < 0.05). Male and female values compared in this work showed no significant difference (p > 0.05). The results showed that the effect of PTB and HIV infection have caused some haematological deregulation. It also showed that sex has little or no effect on the studied parameters.

An Assessment of Medicinal Cocus Nucifera Plant Extracts as Natural Antibiotic Phytotherapies

Author(s):

Nwankwo, I.U. -- Amaechi . N.


Abstract
| Pages: 1-4
The natural antibiotic phyototherapeutic value of Cocus nucifera were screened against five bacteria isolates (Staphylococcus. aureus, Escherichia. coli, Streptococcus. pneumoniae, Proteus. mirabilis and Pseudomonas. aeruginosa) using the agar-well diffusion method. The root extracts were screened for antibacterial activities at concentrations of 100μl/ml. The antibiotic value of the extract against the bacterial strains was indicated by the appearance of clear zone of inhibition around the wells. The percentage yield for the various solvent was found to range between 17.32 – 32.60 with ethanol having the highest value (35.60). The susceptibility of the organism to the antibiotic effect of the extract vary among the different organism tested. The highest zone of inhibition was recorded in Escherichia coli (13.08±0.14). While the least was observed in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (0.08±0.00). Comparison of the antibiotic effect of the extract with some commercial antibiotic. Gentamycin, penicillin and Trimethoprin showed that the commercial antibiotic was found to be more effective in inhibiting the growth of the tested bacterial isolates than the Cocus nucifera extract. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of saponin, tannis, Glycosides, Alkaloids and flavonoids which has been associated with the antimicrobial activities of several herbs. Thus, these preliminary results support the folkloric claims of cocus nucifera preparations are effective against some disease.

Molecular detection and identification of Aspergillus fumigatus in potato chips by PCR technique

Author(s):

Sabreen a. Kamal


Abstract
| Pages: 1-5
Aspergillus infections have grown in importance in the last years , A.fumigatus is a member of the genus Aspergillus, it can colonize a wide variety of substrates , the chips that produced from potatos are one of these substrates that infected by this genus , so in this study we isolated A.fumigatus from potato chips (Lays)with three flavored(salt,French cheese,vinegar) according to colony character in petridish compare with PCR technique for certainity.

Anti implantation effects of Jatropha curcas crude oil when fed to pregnant Sprague dawley rats during the early gestation period

Author(s):

Nur Azira Alwi -- Sabrina Sukardi


Abstract
| Pages: 1-6
Jatropha curcas is a species of flowering plants in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae. The seeds contain 27-40% oil consisting of curcin and tetramethylpyrazine which are toxic and cause abortion, fetotoxicity and teratogenic effects if consume during pregnancy. Twenty four Sprague dawley rats at early gestation weighing about 200- 300g were randomized into four groups: Positive control group was orally administered with retinyl palmitate, negative control group with corn oil (vehicle), treatment group with 0.7 ml/kg body weight of the oil and the normal group was given distilled water. Females were paired overnight with male rats and presence of sperm in the vaginal smears indicated positive mating and considered pregnant day 1. Rats were dosed orally once daily from day 1 till day 7 of gestation. Maternal body weights were also recorded daily. Rats were euthanized by diethyl ether inhalation on day 8 and the uteri removed and stained with 1% ammonium sulphide. The number of implantation sites was counted and data obtained were analysed using SPSS. There is a significant reduction in number of implantation sites i.e., treatment groups, positive and negative control and normal group are 0.83±0.401, 4.5±0.428, 8.67±0.333, 9.17±0.307 respectively. There is also a significant difference between treatment and control group in maternal body weights. In addition, a high percentage (90%) of anti-implantation activity was recorded in treatment groups. The small number of implantation sites and high percentage of antiimplantation activity suggests that Jatropha curcas crude oil have anti-fertility effects when fed to pregnant rats during early gestation.

Evaluation of the antidiarrhoeal effect of Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn F (Sapotaceae) stem bark extract

Author(s):

Abubakar K. -- Abdulkadir R. -- Etuk E.U -- Famoriyo P.O


Abstract
| Pages: 1-5
The antidiarrhoeal property of the methanolic stem bark extract of Vitellaria paradoxa was studied in mice. The assessment parameters included, castor oil induced diarrhoea, intestinal transit time, enteropooling. The antidiarrhoeal evaluation of the extract showed that it significantly reduced castor oil induced diarrhoea in mice dose dependently (100-400 mg/kg). The methanolic extract of Vitellaria paradoxa significantly (p<0.05) increased intestinal transit time of charcoal in mice dose dependently. The extract was also observed to reduce the castor oil induced enteropooling in mice. Vitellaria paradoxa methanol stem bark extract may possess antidiarrhoeal property.

Study of Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Uropathogenic Isolated from Patients in Al-Hillah city

Author(s):

Ali Hussein Al-Marzoqi -- Hayder Sh. Obayes Al-Janabi -- Hussein J. Hussein -- Hassanein K. Ibraheem -- Zahraa Mohammad Al Taee -- Sarah K. Yheea


Abstract
| Pages: 7-14
In this study, 200 patients (100 male and 100 female) suffering from Urinary tract infection who presented to the Emergency Department of Babylon Maternity and Children Hospital and Al-Hillah educational Hospital from October2012 to February2013 underwent a history and physical examination. In this study, Escherichia coli formed the major causative agent (10.8% in male and 13.2% in female) followed by staphylococcus aureus (5.4% in male and 4% in female), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4% in male and 4.6% in female). All isolates were tested for the sensitivity to Amikacin, Chloromphenicol, Nitrofurantoin, Ofloxacin, Norfloxacin, while Pseudomonas aeruginosa shows sensitivity with Norfloxacin, Ofloxacin, Piperacillin, Tobramycin, Proteus species shows sensitivity with Amikacin, Amoxicillin , Cefodizime, Cefoxitin, Cephalexin, Gentamycin, , Norfloxacin, Piperacillin, Tobramycin and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates shows sensitivity with Amikacin, Norfloxacin, Piperacillin, Tobramycin. Our investigation showed that from the 200 patients with UTI, 62 male and 84 had pyuria > 5 WBCs/hpf, 84 male and 75 female had pyuria >10 WBCs/mL, 86 male and 64 female had CRP >24 mg/L, 67 male and 70 female had ESR >35 mm/hour, and 69 male and 55 female had WBC >15 000/mL.

Effect of Different pH on In vitro Seed Germination of Vanda tessellata (Roxb.)Hook.Ex.G an Endangered Medicinal Orchid

Author(s):

Bindiya Prakash -- Ritu Thakur Bais -- Prathibha Singh -- Shagufta Khan


Abstract
| Pages: 4-7
The present investigation deals with a study of In-vitro seed germination of an endangered medicinal orchid Vanda tessellata at different pH (3.5, 4.5, 5.5, 6.5,). Immature seeds obtained from green pods were successfully germinated on basal media MS without various combinations of growth hormones. Highest seed germination (95±0.17%) were observed at 5.5 pH, whereas the medium which is adjusted at 3.5 and 6.5 pH showed poor seed germination.

Physics of Bio-electrical Impedance Analysis: Phase Angle and its Application

Author(s):

Syed Rashad Iqbal


Abstract
| Pages: 4-12
Bioelectrical impedance analysis is an easy technique to evaluate the changes in the body composition. In BIA a small amount of electric current is passed through the body and from electrical properties of human body, Biological values or quantities are calculated, Human body behaves like electric circuit, it acts like RC series and parallel circuit. Here in this review paper these circuits are discussed and then try to implement them on human body to find the composition of human body. The science of this technique is presented that may be helpful for further research in this field... From BIA Phase angle is calculated. Phase angle is very important in clinical research and it can be used as an indicator of health. Role of Phase angle in different disease like cancer and HIV, and its application to monitor and evaluate the patient condition and its role as a prognostic indicator is discussed in this review article using the studies of different researchers. Phase angle can be used as survival indicator in advance cancer patient and HIV. Phase angle can be used to monitor the malnutrition in patient of HIV.

Genetic Variability Assessment of Ethiopian Caraway (Trachyspermum ammi L. Sprague ex Turrill) Genotypes at Mersa, Ethiopia

Author(s):

Seid Hussen -- Kebede W/ Tsadik -- Getinet Alemaw


Abstract
| Pages: 6-11
Thirty-six local accessions of Ethiopian caraway were evaluated to assess their genetic variability and to determine their essential oil contents at Mersa, North Wollo using 6 x 6 lattice designs with three replications. Fourteen parameters were recorded and statistically analyzed The analysis of variance for these parameters indicated that the mean squares due to genotypes were highly significant for days to emergence, days to maturity, plant height, secondary branches/plant, seed yield and essential oil content. Genotypic variance contributed the larger portion of the phenotypic variance in all of the parameters. Moderate values of PCV and GCV were noted for number of secondary branches (15.1% and 14.16%), plant height (12.3% and 10.84%) and essential oil content (16.1% and 15.7%); however, the values of PCV and/or GCV were low for the rest of the parameters. Highest value of heritability were observed for essential oil (94.2%) and secondary branches (87.6%).Genetic advance (GA) and GA% were higher for dry matter, seed yield, secondary branches and plant height. Heritability, GA and GA% were higher for number of secondary branches, plant height and essential oil. Significant positive correlations were observed for number of umbel with number of secondary branches (0.98**), number of seeds per umbel (0.6**) and plant height (0.44**).Genotypically seed yield was positive and highly significant with number of primary branches (0.48**), secondary branches (0.5**), number of umbel per plant (0.8**), number of seeds per umbel (0.98**) and plant height (0.79**).

Ion Exchange Fractionation of Rabbits Seminal Fluid: Recognizing a DNA Retardation Activity from the Main DNase Activity

Author(s):

Mohammed Baqur Al-Shuhaib -- Ali Al-Saadi -- Mahanem Noor -- Mufeed Ewadh


Abstract
| Pages: 8-18
The role of seminal proteins charge on the nature of seminal fluid inhibitory effect that exerted against exogenous DNA. Has been identified and an approach closely with more details to the nature of inhibitory activities available in rabbit seminal fluid proteins that prevent the entry of exogenous DNA into the head of sperm. After collection of rabbit’s ejaculate and removing sperm cells, seminal fluid was incubated with fixed concentration of exogenous DNA. The seminal fluid – exogenous DNA mixture was analyzed by electrophoresis. Ion exchange chromatography was used to separate seminal proteins on the basis of their charge. Positively charged proteins were eluted, lyophilized, and their profile was characterized by SDS-PAGE and native-PAGE. After incubation of this eluted group with the same source of DNA, the same electrophoretic conditions were applied on this group. According to our knowledge, this is the first paper in which ion exchange chromatography was used to separate two DNA counterfeiting activities of the seminal fluid using non-radioactive method in rabbits and even in other mammals. Thus, more than one inhibitory activity were identified and separated. DNA retardation activity (or DNA binding activity) which repressed DNA electrophoretic migration was the only activity that found to be available on the positively charged fractions while the DNase activity was found exclusively on the negatively charged group.

Aspects of the Biology of African Moony, Monodactylus sebae from Badagry Creek, Lagos, Nigeria

Author(s):

Lawson Emmanuel O. -- Akinde-Peters Oluwakemi -- George Aderonke Omobolaji
 


Abstract
| Pages: 5-12
The present study investigates some aspects of the biology of African Moony, Monodactylus sebae (Cuvier 1831) from Badagry Creek, Lagos, Nigeria. Diurnal fish collections were carried out from the creek between May 2012 and April 2013. Fish were caught with cast (mesh size: 12-22 mm) and gill nets (mesh size: 18-45 mm). Specimens were preserved in 10% formaldehyde. Data on total length (L) and body weight (W) measurements were obtained from standard measuring board and Sartorius weighing balance respectively. The length frequency distribution was determined from Petersen’s method, the growth coefficient parameters ‘a’ and ‘b’ of length-weight relationship (LWR) was obtained from the equation: W= aLb, and condition factor from the expression: K= 100W/L3. Sexes were differentiated by macro and microscopically examinations of the gonads after making slit from the vent to operculum region of the fish. Ratio of numbers of males to females were determined from equation: χ2 = (O-E)2/E. A total 267 individuals were from the Creek, the specimens measured from 56-163 (111.16±19.30) mm TL, and weighed between 5.6 and 151.7 (44.80±24.46)g body weight. The LWR was LogW = -1.444 + 2.918 LogL, K varied from 2.04-6.25 (3.00±0.56). Sex ratio was 1 male:1.17 female. The findings show that the species exhibited a negative allometric growth (b=2.918) in the creek, the value which was within the expected range of 2-4 recommended for normal growth of tropical fish. The K factor was higher in females than males while the sex ratio was insignificantly different (P>0.05) from the expected or theoretical 1male:1female ratio (X2 cal=1.66 < X2 tab(n=1, α=0.05)=3.84).

Biochemical Changes in Fibroid Patients

Author(s):

I. Akinlua -- O.C. Ojo


Abstract
| Pages: 6-8
Some biochemical parameters were determined in sixty fibroid patients in University Teaching Hospital. Mean value for plasma total cholesterol (5.56±3.25mmol/L), Triglycerides (1.14±0.61mmol/L, Sodium(Na+) (140±3.0mmol/L), Chloride(CI-)(106±4.2mmol/L) Calcium(Ca2+)(2.5±0.17mmol/L), and Phosphorus(P)(1,40±0.3mmol/L) showed an increase when compared with the control. Analysis of the result showed a decrease in the mean value of total protein(6.01±0,15g/dL), Albumin(4.01± 6.25g/dL), Potassium(K)(3.64±o.32mmol/L) when compared with the control. The mean value of bicarbonate(HCO3) (24.0±2.3mmol/L) was significantly higher (P<0.05) when compared with the control. The raised level of cholesterol and triglycerides in fibroid patient reveal a possible link between fibroid and hypertension while increase concentration of Ca2+,Mg²+ and low concentration of K+ characterise increase oestrogen level which has been implicated in fibroid growth.

The Tyrosinemia Type I

Author(s):

Martin L. Nelwan


Abstract
| Pages: 7-19
Tyrosinemia type 1 is an autosomal recessive disorder which can be detected as early as possible after birth so that it may be treated or alleviated immediately. If untreated, the disorder can cause dysfunctions of liver, kidney, or neurological disease. There are 3 kinds of tyrosinemia; that is, tyrosinemia type 1, 2, and 3. Tyrosinemia type 1 is the most severe of these disorders. To treat or alleviate the disorder, it can be performed using nitisinone drug along with diet management and liver transplantation. Other methods, which may be used to reduce tyrosinemia type 1, are gene therapy, and, of course, genetic counseling.

Elephantopus Species: Traditional Uses, Pharmacological Actions and Chemical Composition

Author(s):

Abubakar Kabiru -- Lip Yee Por


Abstract
| Pages: 6-13
This review paper is a comprehensive summary of the traditional uses, phytochemical composition, pharmacological activity and compounds isolated from different specie of Elephantopus, family (asteraceae). The plant is a genus of about twelve plants out of which majority are natives of south east USA. It is used in traditional folk medicine for the treatment of nephritis, oedema, dampness, pain in the chest, fever, scabies, arthralgia due to wound and cough of Pneumonia. It is also used as a tonic, febrifuge, and diaphoretic against cough, bronchitis, and asthma. Phytochemicals identified in this plant, includes flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, tannins, carbohydrates and proteins. Previous studies on the plant revealed various pharmacological activities, which are attributed to its phytochemical content.These activities include analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antiasthmatic, antimicrobial and wound healing properties. Compounds isolated from different solvent fractions of the plant includes elephantopin, triterpenes, stigmasterol epifriedelinol and lupeol.Other compounds are copaene isopropyl dimethyl hexahydronaphthalene, cyclosativene and Zingiberene from the essential oils of Elephantopus scaber In conclusion, Elephantopus sp has wide traditional and pharmacological uses in various disease conditions. Therefore, further research is advocated on this plant.

Antibacterial Activity of 2- (2-Hydroxy phenylimino) Acetic Acid

Author(s):

Mufeed Ewadh -- Hamid Hasan -- Ilham Bnyan -- Falih Mousa -- Jasim Sultan -- Muna Ewadh


Abstract
| Pages: 15-19
The ability of 2-(2-hydroxy phenylimono) acetic acid [2-(2- HP-AA)] to inhibit growth of different types of pathogenic bacteria was investigated.Different concentration were prepared from this chemical compounds( 40 mM ,50 mM and 70 mM). E.coli, staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus agalactiae nearly completely inhibited at 70 mM ,while the same concentration did not inhibit the growth of Proteus mirabilis ,streptococcus mutans, Klebsiella pneumoniae and streptococcus pneumonia .after 24 h incubating in the present study we evaluate that 70 mM considered as the minimum inhibitory concentration.

Phytochemical Evaluation of different Solvent Extracts of Aegle marmelos fruit at different Stages of its Ripening

Author(s):

Binu Varughese -- Jagrati Tripathi


Abstract
| Pages: 8-12
Phytochemicals from medicinal plants serve as lead compounds for drug discovery and design. Aegle marmelos (L) Correa belonging to family Rutaceae is one of the most useful medicinal plants of India. Its fruit is packed with enormous medicinal advantages that are used in diarrhea, dysentery and gastrointestinal disorders. It also possesses anti-viral, anti-helmintic and anti-inflammatory virtues. To identify and understand the bioactive chemical compounds dry powders of ripe and unripe fruits were subjected to different solvents such as methanol, ethanol and acetone sequentially in a soxhlet apparatus. An aqueous decoction representing the nearest form of traditional preparations was also prepared separately. Although all the three solvents and decoction exhibited promising phytochemicals, yet maximum phytochemicals was observed in decoction followed by ethanol in ripe fruit. In unripe fruit, decoction and ethanol observed same number of phytoconstituents. The methanol extract showed the presence of tannins, flavonoids and alkaloids as major bioactive compound. Acetone extract of both the ripe and unripe fruit showed only few secondary metabolites that confirms the presence of less phytoconstituents. Thus the current study shows that ethanol extract and decoction of ripe and unripe fruits of Bael have both polar and non-polar phytoconstituents, therefore they can be considered as a suitable solvent for further pharmacological research.

Population Dynamics of Podsucking Bug (Anoplocnemis curvipes Hemiptera: coreidae) On Improved Pigeonpea Pods Under Different Plant Spacing and Time of Sowing in Owerri, Rainforest Tropical Environment, Nigeria

Author(s):

Sunday Dialoke -- Ebenezer Egho -- Bernadette Bosah -- Emmanuel C Enujeke


Abstract
| Pages: 12-16
Field study was undertaken to determine the population of pod-sucking bugs Anoplocnemis curvipes Hemiptera: coreidae) and under varying plant spacing and sowing time. The study was done at the Postgraduate Teaching and Research Farm, Department of Crop Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri Imo State. Experiment was laid out in a 3 x 4 factorial and treatments consisted of four plant spacing 15 cm x 35 cm, 20 cm x 40, 25 cm x 50 cm, 30 cm x 60 cm, with three planting dates, April (early season), July (Midseason), and October (late season), 2009 and 2010. The results, show that significant (p<0.05) population of pod sucking bugs (PSBs) such as Anoplocnemis curvipes on pigeonpea pods were high at close spacing of 15 cm x 35 cm. However, the population of A. curvipes decreases with increasing spacing of 30 cm x 60 cm. October planting seasons recorded significant (P<0.05) population of A. curvipes while there were absence of the pest in April and July planting seasons.

Effects of the Aqueous Root Extract of Vernonia amygdalina on the Haematological Profile of Rattus norvegicus

Author(s):

Joseph E Eyo -- Lilian O Nwachukwu -- Ikechukwu E Onah -- Chinedu I Atama -- Felicia N Ekeh -- Ngozi E Ezenwaji -- Njoku Ivoke


Abstract
| Pages: 19-24
The effects of Vernonia amygdalina root extract on the haematological profile of 20 male albino rats (Wistar strain) were investigated for a period of 21 days. The rats were divided into three treatment groups A, B and C and a control group D. The experimental groups A, B and C were treated with 50mg.Kg-1, 150mg.Kg-1 and 300mg.Kg-1 body weight, respectively while the control (group D) received equal volume of normal saline. The extracts were given to the animals orally for 21 days. Blood was collected through the orbital-plexus of rats to assay the effect of the extract on packed cell volume (PCV), white blood cell count (WBC), red blood cell count (RBC) and haemoglobin (Hb) levels. The mean WBC, RBC, PVC and haemoglobin levels ranged from 1560 ± 120 to 3200 ± 1200, 150.00 ± 40.00 to 276.00 ± 44.50, 38.00 ± 1.00 to 41.00 ± 3.00, and 16.00 ± 2.00 to 12.50 ± 0.50, respectively. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the haematological profile of the treated groups when compared with the control. However, there was significant difference (p<0.05) within each group from week one to week three except WBC in group D and PVC in all the groups. This suggested that the effect of the aqueous extract of V. amygdalina on the haematological profile of Rattus norvegicus was dependent on duration of consumption.

Current Point of View in Preterm Labor Management in Albania

Author(s):

Zef Delija -- Rustem Celami


Abstract
| Pages: 13-16
The purpose of this study was to prevent preterm labor that uses maintenance with tocolysis therapy. This paper emphasizes the fact that there are very few hospital protocols of preterm labor that use maintenance tocolysis therapy. Our goal is to identify the possible benefits of such therapy based on individual selection of pregnant women and their gestational age. We bring our university hospital experience study of three years with a long term use of tocolysis at risk pregnancy unit at the “Koço Gliozheni” University Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tirana, Albania. Qualitative method is used in this study and the prospective controlled population based study during March 2011 to March 2013 included pregnant women hospitalized for preterm labor with the criteria of: singleton pregnancy, 28-32 weeks of gestation, with no PPROM; maintenance with tocolysis therapy over one month period. Women were divided in two groups: 28-30 weeks gestation age and 30-32 weeks gestation age; tocolytics used: indomethacine, ritrodine, nifedipine, magnesium sulfate. Data collected showed that 325 pregnant women with admission diagnosis of preterm labor which met the study criteria went under the maintenance with tocolysis therapy, 200 patients or 61.5 % with gestation age 20-30 weeks, and 125 patients or 38.5 % were 30-32 weeks of gestations. There was a significant difference in patient group of 28-30 weeks gestation age by prolonging their pregnancy more than the group of 30-32 weeks gestation age. The prolongation of pregnancy was 45 days with the use of tocolysis therapy and these patients had a major benefit compared to those that used just emergency tocolysis therapy. The study draws to the conclusion that the use of maintenance with tocolysis therapy where there is no urgency indication for any intervention to interrupt the stay of the baby in uterus, gives considerable benefits to preterm labor diagnosed women of their singleton pregnancies and prolongs pregnancy substantially. However, use of larger population study and more studies need to be done in order to offer suitable guidelines to prevent preterm labor.

Antileishmanial activity of Aloe Secundiflora plant extracts against Leishmania Major (2013)

Author(s):

Ogeto T. K -- Odhiambo R. A -- Shivairo, R. S -- Muleke C. I -- Osero B. O -- Anjili C - Ingonga J. M -- Osuga I. M


Abstract
| Pages: 9-17
Human leishmaniases are a spectrum of diseases caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. In this study antileishmanial activity of the methanolic and water leaf extracts from Aloe secundiflora plant were analysed by determining the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC), nitric oxide (NO) production stimulation, infection rates (IR) and multiplication index (MI). Cytotoxicity of these plant extracts was also assessed. The MIC levels of water and methanolic plant extracts, amphotericin B and pentostam were 2000 μg/ml, 1000 μg/ml, 125μg/ml and 250 μg/ml respectively against Leishamnia major promastigotes. This study revealed that water and methanolic plant extracts significantly inhibited the growth of Leishmania parasites (P ≤ 0.05) as compared to amphotericin B with respect to the parasite infection rates and MIC levels. The IC50 for the water and methanolic plant extracts was 279.488 μg/ml and 42.824 μg/ml respectively. The elevated inhibitory activity observed in this study against Leishmania major parasites provides evidence and basis for their potential use as therapeutic agents against leishmaniasis.

Toxic Effect of Powdered Castor Oil Seed (Ricinus Communis L.) on Roof Rat

Author(s):

Olayioye, A. -- Olaifa, J. I.


Abstract
| Pages: 20-30
The powder of castor oil seed of (Ricinus communis L. Euphorbiaceae) was used in a Laboratory experiment for its toxicity. The study was undertaken to investigate the effect of powdered castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.) on roof rat. Forty five roof rat were caught and divided into three (3) groups, there were five (5) roof rat in a cage which represent a group, replicated three (3) times were used in the study. The castor oil seed was turned to powdery form using pestle and mortal to grind the seeds. Three feed formulations were used; A baited formulation of powdered castor oil seed plus fried fish at ratio 1:0.5; Another baited powdered castor oil seed plus fried fish at ratio 1:0.1; The third group were given a commercial rat feed only which serve as control. These feeds were administered to each group of the roof rat and their behaviors were properly monitored over a period of five (5) days. The histology of the kidney, liver, spleen, which was initially preserved in formalin were later analysed. The results showed that a powdered castor oil seed baited with fried fish can serve as rodenticide and all test groups show histological features of lethal tissue damage in all the organs examined while control group shows normal tissue.

Auditory Measures of Attention & Working Memory in Children with Learning Disability & Typically Developing Children

Author(s):

Kaushlendra Kumar -- Anshul -- Anjana hoode -- Pooja sheth -- Jayashree .S. Bhat


Abstract
| Pages: 14-19
Learning disability is a general term that describes specific kinds of learning problems. Children with learning disability have deficits in selective attention and working memory. It is believed that difficulties in working memory will influence the ability to attend to a task. The present study was done to investigate and compare the performances of children with learning disability and typically developing children in tasks evaluating auditory aspects of selective attention, divided attention and working memory capacity. 19 children with age range 10 to 14 years participated in the study. Typically developing children group consisted of 10 participants. Learning disability group consisted of 9 children. Dichotic Listening test, auditory stroop task and Digit Backward Recall task were the tests used for assessment of selective attention, divided attention and working memory capacity. Repeated measures of ANOVA was performed to investigate the effects of group (learning disability group and typically developing children group) and ear (Directed Right, directed left and free listening) in dichotic listening task. The test result showed significant main effect of group and ear as well as children in both the groups performed best for directed right condition of directed left task followed by free listening and directed left condition. Independent ‘t’ test results revealed that there was a significant differences in stroop reaction time, digit backward recall and stroop score. In conclusion typically developing children performed better than that of children with learning disability in both tasks.

Variation in the Percentages of the Bark of Ten Tropical Hardwood Species Growing in Nigeria

Author(s):

Ogunwusi, A. A.


Abstract
| Pages: 20-23
There is an increasing global interest in bark utilization as a substitute to fossil fuel as a result of climate change problems. Efforts are being directed at promoting sustainable utilization of wood bark in biorefineries and in tannin adhesives production. Until recently, bark is treated as a waste, thus, little research efforts are directed at studying the bark percentage of indigenous hardwoods in Nigeria. This study shows that there is high variation in the bark percentages of the wood species used. The mean bark percentage ranged from 6.08% in A. leiocarpus to 15.00% in D. senegalense. Within species variation was also observed to be high. The bark percentage ranged from 5.88 to 12.5% in A. nilotica and 5.88 to 12.24% in A. Africana respectively.

Seven Species of Curvularia Isolated from Three Lakes of Bhopal

Author(s):

Pratibha Verma -- Shailu Singh -- Ranjana Singh


Abstract
| Pages: 13-15
A water borne Conidial fungi Curvularia were isolated from Sarangpani lake, Shahpura lake and Lower lake of Bhopal. Seven species were isolated during investigation period. They are Curvularia clavata, C. intermedia, C. lunata, C. pallescens, C. prasadii, C. robusta and C. senegalensis.

Expression of Pro Inflammatory Cytokines and Anti-Chlamydia Antibody in Bacterial Ocular Infection

Author(s):

Abdalnabi J Abid -- Ruqaya M Awadh


Abstract
| Pages: 17-20
Current study was done to investigate the bacterial causes of eye infection for 130 patients with different ages in Babylon city , the study includes swab for eye and sample of blood. Bacteriological diagnostic for eye swab which taken from different site include Conjunctivitis, Dacryocystitis, Lidinfection showed variation in types and number of isolates . Gram positive bacterial isolates include Staphylococcus aureus 67 (38.06%), Which represent the predominating bacteria, Staphylococcus epidermidis 18 (10.22%), While gram negative bacteria represent Escherichia coli 40 (22.7%), Neisseriae gonorrhoeae 5 (2.84%). Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis reveals only one positive case out of 42 eye infected case for anti Chlamydia IgG –IgM ( 3.7 %), Immunological test of Cytokine IL-6 in patient show increased in their concentration compared with healthy at P< 0.05 reached 8.52 pg/ml especially at age group 41-50. IFN-γ also show increased in their concentration in patient than controls although, there is no significant differences between patient and control groups. 

Poor Quality of Sleep and its Relationship with Depression in First Year Medical Students

Author(s):

Abdussalam -- Mohammad Tariq Salman -- Sushma Gupta -- Mohit Trivedi -- Mariam Farooqi


Abstract
| Pages: 17-21
Introduction: High incidence of depression has been reported in undergraduate medical students. Sleep disturbance has been associated with depressive symptoms and higher body mass index (BMI). This study evaluated the relationship between sleep disturbance measured by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index ( PSQI) and Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) with BMI and depression measured by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) in 1st year medical students. Method: Following Institutional Ethics Committee approval, 1st year medical students who volunteered for study and gave written informed consent (n=73) were administered PSQI, ESS & BDI questionnaires after seven months of admission. Height and weight were measured by standard method. Scores of PSQI, BDI and BMI were calculated and their interrelationship was measured statically. Results: Poor quality of sleep (PSQI score greater or equal to five) and depression (BDI score eleven or greater) was seen in majority of students (64 and 60 % respectively). BMI was not significantly correlated with PSQI, ESS or BDI scores .There was significant positive correlation between PSQI and BDI (Pearson correlation, r = 0.410, P < 0.001), higher the BDI scores higher the PSQI scores. Conclusions: Poor sleep quality and depressive symptoms were observed in majority of 1st year medical students. Sleep quality and depressive symptoms were interrelated. Prevention and treatment strategies should target sleep as a factor that can potentially influence the development and course of Depression leading to poor academic performance. There is an urgent need to address this issue.

Bacteriological and Physicochemical Qualities of Well Water in Imota-Lagos Nigeria and Health Effects Associated with its Usage

Author(s):

Pius A Okiki -- Joy O Ivbijaro


Abstract
| Pages: 18-25
Well water is a key source of drinking water in rural areas, such as Imota where this study was carried out. Forty wells made of concrete, comprising of 20 (50%) hand-drawn and 20 (50%) operated through mechanical/electrical pumps in Imota were investigated for their physicochemical and bacteriological qualities. Analytes such as total hardness, magnesium hardness, calcium hardness and nitrate levels were within the recommended WHO standard for water quality. The water from the wells with pH values of 4.5 – 5.9 is acidic and falls below the WHO recommended pH range of 6.5-8.5. Ammonium and iron concentrations in the well water were relatively higher as well as very high bacterial loads and coliform counts were obtained. Calcium and magnesium significantly correlates with each other and both with total hardness (p<0.001). Significant positive correlations were obtained between iron concentration and coliform counts (0.039), iron and nitrate (p=0.033), as well as coliform and total bacterial load (p=0.001). Higher bacterial loads were obtained from wells that are hand-drawn using various containers than wells where water is being pumped using devices. The bacteria isolated include Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus equorum, Staphylococcuss carnosus, Kokuria varians, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus niacini , Bacillus firmus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Citrobacter koseri, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Acinectobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas sp., Salmonella enterica, Edwardsiella tarda and Buttiauxella agrestis. The bacterial isolates were highly susceptible to antibiotics except for chloroamphenicol, ampicillin and nitrofurantion which showed 25%, 10% and 28.75% susceptibility respectively.. Symptoms of ill-health commonly reported by participants include fever, chills, headache, weakness/muscle ache, and skin rash, and abdominal pain, diarrhoea, sneezing and coughing. The reported frequencies of ill-health were significantly higher (t=3.200, p=0.013) among residents that drank water from the well than those that do not. The need to treat the water from these wells before drinking is highly recommended.

Assessment of nutritional status of household members in a rural Nigerian population

Author(s):

Helen Henry-Unaeze -- Elizabeth Ngwu -- Uchenna Okore


Abstract
| Pages: 31-40
The study assessed the intra-household nutritional status of 50 households with 202 family members in Ikwuano, Nigeria. Data were obtained through pre-tested questionnaires and anthropometry. The results indicate that 56% of food procurement was by market purchases + home grown, 22% was by market purchases only, while market purchases + home grown + gift was (22%). The mode of food distribution was mainly individually (42%), followed by collectively (32%) while individually + collectively was 26%. The largest quantity of foods in the family was consumed by fathers (36%), mothers (30%) youngest child (16%), eldest child (6%), everyone (5%) and both parents (1%). Data on nutritional status showed underweight (parent 4.8%, children 67.2%), normal weight (parents 55.4%, children 26.9%), overweight (parent 31.3%, children 5.9%) and obese (parent 8.4%, children 0.0%). The male-headed households had better nutritional status than female-headed households. The study showed that improper method of food allocation was employed by the study population with a consequent existence of double burden of malnutrition in the households.

An Analytical and Clinical Study for Measure the Bioavailability of Zinc in Serum Using Flame Atomic Absorption Technique

Author(s):

Jasim Shamar -- Ali Mahmood -- Anwar Muslim -- Hamid Hasan


Abstract
| Pages: 20-26
An analytical and clinical study has been applied for measure the bioavailability of Zinc in serum of twenty adults healthy volunteers, using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS) at 213.9 nm. The calibration graph is linear in the ranges of 0.25-1.5 μg.mL-1 with correlation coefficient (R) 0.09996)μg.mL1-and molar absorpitivites 22957.76(L.mol1-cm-1.The concentration of Zinc determined in serum of all volunteers before and after administered orally a tablet of 50 mg zinc sulphate, produced by Samara drugs company (SDI). All data were subjected to statistical analysis by calculating accuracy, precision in addition to other parameters. The results indicate that the average maximum concentration (C-max ± SD) of blood zinc was 0.8275 ± 0.0511mg.mL-1after one hour of absorption (T-max ± SD), however one capsule has drug bioavailability through all day.

Growth patterns, Sex ratios and Fecundity estimates in Blue Crab (Callinectes amnicola) from Yewa River, Southwest Nigeria

Author(s):

Emmanuel Olugbenga Lawson -- Rashidat Taiwo Oloko


Abstract
| Pages: 24-33
The present study investigates the growth patterns, sex ratios and fecundity estimates in Blue crab, Callinectes amnicola from Yewa River, Southwest Nigeria, between June 2011 and May 2012. Specimens were collected from Yewa River with basket traps (with non returned valve), gill and cast nets at depths between 1 and 15 metres. Morphometric data, body weight measurement, sex and number of ripe eggs (fecundity) were estimated from the crabs following standard methods. A total of 250 individuals measuring between 5.2 and 14.8 (10.75±1.98) cm long and weighing 8.2-165 (74.16±33.5) g in body weight were caught from Yewa River. The length-weight relationships were LogW=Log-0.96+2.72LogL (r=0.95) for males and LogW=Log-0.48+2.27LogL (r=0.95) for females. Growth was a negative allometry in C. amnicola with males exhibiting a better growth pattern. Condition factor variations were 2.14-9.48 (5.92±1.03) in males and 2.99-8.51 (5.49±0.95) in females. A total of 102 males and 148 females were encountered, given a sex ratio of 1male:1.45females. The sex ratio was significantly different (X2 cal =8.46> X2 tab (df= 1,α=0.05) =3.86) from the expected and theoretical 1male:1 female ratio. Fecundity estimates ranged from 260,000 to 2,150,692 (1,269,345.25±592.39) eggs for mature females. The linear relationships between fecundity/carapace length; and fecundity/body weight were LogF=Log0.383+3.21LogL (r=0.463) and LogF=Log0.333+1.38LogW (r=0.461) respectively. Conclusively, blue crab (C. amnicola) in Yewa River exhibited variations in their growth patterns, sex ratios and fecundity estimates when compared with the counterpact reports from the neighbouring water bodies.

Systemic Phaeohyphomycosis Caused by Cladosporium Cladosporioides: In Vitro Sensitivity and its Serological Diagnosis

Author(s):

Varsha Aglawe -- Moulshree Tamrakar -- S.M. Singh -- H. Sontakke


Abstract
| Pages: 16-20
Phaeohyphomycosis is a clinical entity caused by dematiaceous fungi. Cladosporium cladosporioides is a phaeoid fungi commonly found in man’s environment and has been reported to cause infection in man. We report a cause of pheohyphomycosis in a 60 year old male suffering from tuberculosis and gangrene. C. Cladoporioides was isolated from peripheral blood of the patient. The direct microscopic examination of the blood sample revealed the presence of dark color dematiaceous septate & branched mycelium. In-vitro antifungal sensitivity of C. cladosporioides against Ketoconazole, Fluconazole, Itaconazole and Clotrimazole performed by Polak’s 1:3 dilution method. Ketoconazole was the most effective drug against the isolated strain with MIC 10 μg ml–1 after 96 hrs. of incubation. The exoantigen of C. cladosporioides was prepared and subjected to SDS PAGE (Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) analysis which revealed two bands of 15 and 67 K Dalton. Antisera was raised against the antigen and subjected to ODD (Ouchterlony’s double diffusion) test which showed highly specific band of identity. No cross reactivity was observed against the exoantigen of C. cladosporioides with antisera of 2 strains of Curvularia verruculosa and one strain of Alternaria alternata. In this study it is concluded that cases of phaeohyphomycoses caused by C. cladosporioides can be rapidly diagnosed using exoantigenic method.

Molecular Identification of Key Mastitis causing Bacteria in Dairy Goats in Kenya

Author(s):

R. S. Shivairo -- J. Matofari -- C. I. Muleke -- P. K. Migwi -- E. Lugairi


Abstract
| Pages: 21-24
Mastitis remains one of the most common diseases of the dairy goats, causing the biggest economic loss. Use of antimicrobial treatment is the generally recommended, but only after identifying the causal organisms. The use of PCR has emerged as the most accurate in microbial identification due to several advantages, including high sensitivity and specificity. The objective of this study was to apply PCR techniques in identification of the key mastitis causing bacteria, E. coli and Staph. aureus, isolated from a farm-survey carried out on goat milk in three goat keeping regions of Kenya, Coast, Rift Valley and Nyanza. Two gene specific primers for amplification of Staph. aureus sequence targeting the nuc gene, and E. coli sequence targeting the pic gene, were used as described in the materials and methods applied to 16 randomly selected pure bacteria cultures representing the three regions. In total six of the samples were positive for the pic gene, while five were positive for the nuc gene. Each of the genes was distributed to all the three regions. The positive identification of these genes indicates the potential for use of PCR in accurate goat mastitis diagnosis; it also indicates these mastitis causing pathogens are widespread in all dairy goat keeping regions of Kenya.

Factors Predisposing to Organ (s) Dysfunction among Critically Ill Adult Patients at a Selected University Hospital in Egypt

Author(s):

Warda youssef Mohammed Morsy -- Hanaa Ali Elfeky -- Fatma Abd El Aziz Mohammed


Abstract
| Pages: 22-32
Multiple organs dysfunction is one of the most challenging clinical problems in the intensive care units. It is one of the leading causes of morbidity and the main cause of mortality in critically ill patients. Therefore, requires efforts of of the health care team especially critical care nurses who are the healthcare providers and most closely involved in the daily care of critically ill patients. They have the opportunity to early detect and identify patients at risk for the development organs dysfunction. Aim of the study: to identify factors predisposing to organ(s) dysfunction among critically ill adult patients at a selected university hospital. Research questions: Q1-What is the frequency of organ dysfunction among critically ill adult patients at a selected university hospital, in Egypt? Q2-What are diffrent predisposing factors to organ dysfunction among critically ill adult patients at a selected university hospital, in Egypt?. Research design: A descriptive/exploratory research design was utilized. Sample: A sample of convince consisting of 110 adult male and female critically ill patients admitted to to different intensive care units over a period of six months was included. Tools of data collection: Four tools were utilized for data collection: Sociodemographic and Medical data Sheet; Predisposing Factors to Organ (s) Dysfunction Assessment Sheet; Physical Assessment Sheet; and The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (SOFA). Results: The current study revealed that: more than half (55.5%) of the studied sample had two organs dysfunction, of these (n=33/54.1%) were in age group from 58 - < 68, with no significant statistical relationship between the age and frequency of organs dysfunction (χ2/P = 20.24/0.20). Infection, heart failure, hypertension, and diabetes were the common predisposing factors to organ(s) dysfunction in percentages of 63.6%, 30.2%, & 22% respectively. Mild degree of organs dysfunction were most frequently noticed on admission, after 24 and 96 hours of admission to the ICU with mean SOFA scores of 5.08 ± 1.601, 4.87± 1.86, & 5.00 ± 1.87 respectively. The mean total and subtotal SOFA scores didn’t differ significantly in different assessment times (F / P= 1.29/0.35, 3.63/0.10, 2.69/0.72). The fate of the studied sample differed significantly in relation to the total mean SOFA scores (χ2= 54.96, p= 0.000). Conclusion: multi-organ(s) dysfunction was evident among critically ill patients. The most common predisposing factors were comorbidity diseases, infection on admission, after 48 and 96 hours of admission, having different types of shock, and trauma. So, identification and management of these predisposing factors may decrease the complication and improve patients 'outcomes. Recommendations: Based on findings of the present study the following are recommended: strict application of universal precautions / infection control measures; prevention, and early detection of shock, sepsis, and so organ dysfunction; designing continuous practical educational programs about the application of the strict aseptic technique, the universal precautions and infection control for critical care nurses; Designing booklets and posters about early manifestation, predisposing factors, and importance of prevention of sepsis and organ dysfunction for critical care nurses; and utilization of SOFA scores in the management of patient with sepsis and organ dysfunction.

Cellular Immune Response and Abomasum worm burden in Goats Vaccinated with HC58cDNA Vaccine against H. contortus Infection

Author(s):

C. I. Muleke -- Ruofeng Yan -- Yanming Sun -- I. M. Osuga -- R. S. Shivairo -- Xiangrui Li
 


Abstract
| Pages: 26-33
Vaccination with DNA vaccines derived from adult H. contortus induces significant level of protection against homologous infection in goat. To date however, mechanism of protection is not well understood, especially in goat. In this study, HC58 DNA vaccinated goats were artificially infected with 5, 000 dose of infective H. contortus L3 (third larval stage), and cellular immune responses and abomasum worm burden examined. The results showed that peripheral CD4+, CD8+ T and B lymphocytes for nematode challenged Groups 1, 2 and 4 increased subsequent to L3 infection compared to negative control Group 3. Likewise, the mean eosinophil and lymphocyte counts increased substantially after vaccination and L3 challenge. On the contrary, circulating neutrophil and white blood cells reduced under similar experimental conditions in goats carrying an equal L3 nematode burden. These findings suggested that regulation of H. contortus expulsion in goat is a complex mechanism orchestrated by CD4+ and CD8+T cells, recruitment of eosinophil and lymphocytes and inclined towards development of Th2 responses.

Control of wax moth, Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in post harvest honey comb

Author(s):

Samuel A. Babarinde -- Adeola F. Odewole -- Adeyemi O. Akinyemi -- Timothy A. Adebayo -- Adesanya Olayioye -- Oluwakorede A. Omodehin -- Oluwadamilola F. Alabi


Abstract
| Pages: 41-44
An experiment was carried out in the laboratory to control the infestation of larger wax moth, Galleria mellonella, after honey extraction. Different quantities of salt in water and hermetic storage were used as methods of controlling the larvae. A treatment containing Aluminium phosphide tablet was incorporated as a chemical method of control and the treated honeycomb samples were stored for two month. Of all the treatments used, the hermetic storage and Aluminium phosphide had the best result in that the comb retained their freshness post two months storage. The number of emerged moth in opened untreated control (61.00) was higher than other treatments but significantly higher than the number of emerged moth observed in salt- treated comb in opened containers. Wax and slum gum weight were not significantly affected by the treatments. Hermetic storage is therefore recommended as a better method of controlling wax moth in honeycomb after the extraction of honey than Aluminium phosphide, due to the possibility of residue of Aluminium phosphide in the treated honeycomb.

Detection of Adhesion Genes and Slim Production among Staphylococcus Aureus and Staphylococcus Epidermidis Isolated from Hemodialysis Patients

Author(s):

Ilham Bnyan


Abstract
| Pages: 27-32
The presence of the ica loci and adhesins genes in clinical Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis strains were considered important factors of virulence. In this study, one isolate of S. epidermidis and six isolates of S. aureus were isolated from cases of septicemia in hemodialysis patients and were investigated for slime production using Congo red agar methods (CRA). Biofilm production of S. epidermidis and S. aureus by using (CRA) plate revealed that all seven isolates were slime producers. In order to detect the adhesion genes (clf A, fnb A and cna) and presence of slime genes (ica A and ica D) genes polymerase chain reaction was used. All seven isolates were ica A and ica D positive. While the (clf A, fnb A and cna) were positive in S. aureus and negative in S. epidermidis. This study confirms the presence of clf A, fnb A and can and ica A/D genes in the majorty studies S. aureus strains isolates from different sites of infection.

Effect of Uterine Massage to Women during Third Stage of Labor on Preventing Postpartum Hemorrhage

Author(s):

Dalal Khalel Eshra -- Omar El Nahta -- Amal Gamal -- Farida Habib


Abstract
| Pages: 34-41
Background: Postpartum hemorrhage is still the leading cause of death of birthing mothers in the world today. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of uterine massage to women during the third stage of labor on preventing postpartum hemorrhage. Method: The Design of this study was quasi-experimental. The study sample consisted of 400 women divided into 4 groups. The study was conducted at Menoufia University Hospital. The tool of this study was a structured interview questionnaire. The validity of the tool was ascertained by a group of experts who reviewed the tool for content validity. The reliability of the tool was assessed through testing their internal consistency. Results: there was statistically significant difference between the studied groups as regards the amount of blood loss, time of placental delivery, the use of uterotonics and the occurrence of postpartum hemorrhage. Conclusion, uterine massage during and after placental delivery is effective in reducing blood loss. uterine massage during and after placental delivery must be applied. It is also recommended to teach nurses how to apply uterine massage.

Drechslera Species Firstly Reported from Some Water Bodies of Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh

Author(s):

Shailu Singh -- Pratibha Verma -- Ranjana Singh


Abstract
| Pages: 21-24
During the investigation period (2007-2008) study of fungal diversity has been taken first time in three lakes of Bhopal. Eleven species of Drechslera viz. D. australiensis, D. halodes, D. hawaiiensis, D. rostrata, D. sacchari, D. state of Cochliobolus bicolor, D. state of Cochliobolus miyabeanus, D. state of Cochliobolus sativus, D. state of Cochliobolus setariae, D. state of Cochliobolus spicifer and D. state of Trichometaspheria turcica belonging to order Moniliales and group Deuteromycotina were isolated from lentic environment of Shahpura lake, Sarangpani lake and Lower Lake of Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh.

Chemical composition of ten medicinal plant seeds from Southwest Nigeria

Author(s):

Ibironke A. Ajayi -- Olusola O. Ojelere


Abstract
| Pages: 25-32
The phytochemical, proximate and mineral element composition of ten different medicinal plant seeds were assessed and compared. The medicinal plant seeds investigated are Canna bidentata, Ceasalpinia bunduc, Cola millenii, Hunteria umbellata, Hydrocotyle asiata, Megaphrynium macrostarchyum, Perinari excelsa, Rauwolfia vomitoria, Solanum dasyphyllum and Sphenocentrum jollyanum. The result of the phytochemical analysis showed that all the selected plant seeds contain alkaloids and saponin except Megaphrynium macrostarchyu while phenolic group is present in Perinari excelsa only. The moisture content of the samples ranged between (12.51-26.7 %), crude protein (8.65-48.09 %), crude fibre (2.69-12.66%), crude fat (2.65-18.10%), ash content (3.26-11.45 %) and carbohydrate (16.79-59.38%). Mineral element analysis showed that the selected plant seeds contained low levels of potassium (2.14-8.12 mg/L), zinc (1.38-5.53 mg/L), iron (0.22-1.90 mg/L) and manganese (0.14-1.40 mg/L) and high level of calcium (3.25-68.55mg/L). All the selected plant seeds have potential of serving as supplementary sources of antimicrobial drugs and essential nutrients to man and livestock.

Cerebral Perfusion Pressure among Acute Traumatic Brain Injury Patients at Supine versus Semi-Fowler Positions

Author(s):

Tahsien Mohamed Okasha -- Khaled Samir Anbar -- Yousria Abd El Salam Seloma
 


Abstract
| Pages: 33-45
Background: Positioning is one of the most frequently performed nursing activities in the intensive care units. However literature review documented lack of knowledge about the relationship of cerebral dynamics and different body positions among acute traumatic brain injury patients. Aim: the aim of this study is to assess the effect of supine and semi-fowler position on cerebral perfusion pressure among patients with acute traumatic brain injuries at Cairo University Hospital as indicated by: Glasgow coma score (GCS), arterial blood gases values (ABG), oxygen saturation and vital signs (pulse, blood pressure and respiratory rate). Research questions: What is the effect of supine position on cerebral perfusion pressure among patients with acute traumatic brain injuries? And what is the effect of semi fowler position on cerebral perfusion pressure among patients with acute traumatic brain injuries? Sample: Convenience sample of 39 patients admitted with acute traumatic brain injury. Design: Descriptive exploratory repeated measures study. Setting: University Hospital in Cairo. Tools: Initial acute traumatic brain injury patient’s assessment sheet, and cerebral oxygenation and physiological parameters assessment sheet for acute traumatic brain injury patients. Result: The mean age was 28.5 ±7.9 years. (74.4%) have normal body weight, (25.6%) were having cerebral contusion. Significant increase of CPP, Pao2, SaO2, SPO2, mean arterial pressure and systolic blood pressure, in 15 min post semi-fowler position assessment with a significant decrease of PaCo2. Significant decrease of pulse rate in supine position was evident. With no significant changes in diastolic blood pressure and GCS. Conclusion: Semi-fowler position was found to affect the ABG values, mean arterial pressure, respiratory rate, SpO2 and CPP positively. Recommendation: Studying the effect of side lying and prone position to establish data base about the optimal body position for acute traumatic head injury patients is highly recommended with replication of this study on larger probability sample.

Protective activity of some antioxidant plant against hydrogen peroxidase genotoxic effects on human lymphocyte

Author(s):

Mufeed Ewadh -- Haider Zaidan -- Zahraa Haleem -- Mona Al-Terehi -- Ali Al Saadi


Abstract
| Pages: 34-44
The study aims to evaluation protective activity of different plants extracts, methanol extract of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.); sage (Salvia officinalis L) and Pomegranate cortex (Punica granutum) and cold and hot water extract of Ginger ( Zingiber officinale) and soaking method for saffron (Ccinerocus sativus) against oxidative stress caused by H2O2 on human lymphocyte in vitro using DNA fragmentation test . Plant extracts were characterized using thin layer chromatography and detection phenol compounds using ferric chloride reagent. Results showed that some plant extract consist of different compounds and have phenolic compounds in its extracts, some of this extracts didn’t have any effect on DNA when it use alone, but others have genotoxic effects, also its appeared protective effect against H2O2 which it caused fragment in DNA.

Effect of various levels of Moringa Leaf Meal on the Egg Quality of Isa Brown Breed of Layers

Author(s):

Ebenebe C. I. -- Anigbogu C. C. -- Anizoba M. A. -- Ufele A. N.


Abstract
| Pages: 45-49
The effect of various levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal on the laying performance and egg quality of Isa brown pullets was investigated using one hundred and twenty Isa Brown pullets randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (0%, 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5%) with 30 birds per treatment and three replicates of 10 birds per replicate in a 3 x 4 CRD design were used for the experiment which lasted for 8 weeks. The result showed that birds on T2 performed significantly (P<0.05) better in terms of egg production and egg quality. . Numerical values are 159 + 1.52egg/wk, 66.25 + 7.69g, 5.58 + 0.24cm, 8. 63 + 1.01g and 76.62 respectively for mean weekly egg collection, egg weight, egg length, shell weight and egg surface for birds on T2, while the respective values are 131 + 1.34egg/wk, 60.48 + 8.05g, 5.39 + 0.18cm, 8.67 + 1.39g and 72.11 for those on T3 and 133 + 1.54 egg/wk, 58.33 + 7.61g, 5.41 + 0.26cm, 8.17 + 0.92g and 70.23 for those on T4. Egg width, shell thickness and egg shape index did not show any significant difference (P > 0.05). The result of the internal characteristics of the birds followed a similar trend with birds on T2 having significantly (P < 0.05) better indices of internal egg quality. The respective values are 23.13 + 3.55g, 1.5cm, 32.71 + 3.29g, 34.89 for yolk weight, yolk height, albumen weight and yolk ratio for birds on T2, while those on T3 and T4 had 19.90 + 2.77g, 1.4cm, 29.62 + 3.94g 32.9 and 15.58 + 1.89g, 1.4cm, 29.71 + 3.4 and 27.22 for the parameters indicated. Inclusion of Moringa leaf meal at lower levels is therefore recommended.

Kidney injury molecule-1: a urinary biomarker for contrast induced acute kidney injury

Author(s):

Vijayasimha M -- Vijaya Padma V -- Saroj Kumar Das Mujumdar -- P VV Satyanarayana


Abstract
| Pages: 33-40
Back ground: Urinary kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) is early biomarker for renal damage. A few studies have been published analyzing the potential use of urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) as a biomarker for acute kidney injury. However no study has been done related to Acute Kidney Injury associated with contrast administration. Aim: To search for new markers to identify Acute Kidney Injury (ARF) associated with contrast administration earlier than serum creatinine. Material and Methods: We studied 100 consecutive patients with normal serum creatinine undergoing angiographic procedure. We assessed urine KIM-1, at 4h, 8h, and 24 hours after the angiographic procedure. Serum creatinine was measured at basal, 24h and 48 hours after the procedure. Results: There was a significant rise in urinary KIM-1 levels at 24 hours after the angiographic procedure. The presence of contrast induced nephropathy associated with acute Kidney Injury was 12%. Conclusion: The present study highlighted the importance of urinary KIM-1 in detecting Acute Kidney Injury associated with contrast administration earlier than Serum creatinine.

Inhibitory effect of new ligand 2, 3, 5, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0- tetra acetic acid-L- ascorbic acid on pathogenic bacteria

Author(s):

Ilham Bnyan -- Mufeed Ewadh -- Hamid Hasan -- Falih Mousa -- Jasim Sultan -- Muna Ewadh


Abstract
| Pages: 42-47
The inhibitory effect of new product (2, 3, 5, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0- tetra acetic acid-L- ascorbic acid)(V-C-4Ac) on growth of different types of pathogenic bacteria was investigated. Different concentrations were prepared from (V-C-4Ac) , (1%, 3%, 4% and 5%) nearly completely inhibited the growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus agalactiae after 24 hrs incubation, and the same range of concentrations did not inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans, Klebsiella pneumonia and Proteus mirabilis. Also, this study shows low effect of new ligand in the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli in high concentration (5%) after 2 hrs incubation.

Antifungal Activity of Alcoholic Leaf Extracts of Terminalia Catappa and Terminalia Arjuna on Some Pathogenic and Allergenic Fungi

Author(s):

Shikha Mandloi -- Rajashree Srinivasa -- Renu Mishra -- Ranjana Varma


Abstract
| Pages: 25-27
Ethanol and methanol leaf extracts of Terminalia catappa and Terminalia arjuna were investigated for in-vitro antifungal activity. Four fungi tested were Aspergillus niger, Alternaria alternata, Curvularia lunata and Trychophyton tonsurans.The in-vitro antifungal activity was evaluated by food poison technique. Both the plants should antifungal activity on comparision with T. arjuna better antifungal efficacy was shown by methanol extract of T. catappa. Methanol extract showed significant antifungal activity against most susceptible mould was Curvularia lunata. The results were compared with standard antifungals.

Evaluation of the toxicological status of Balanite aegyptiaca seed oil

Author(s):

Ibironke A. Ajayi -- Ajoke F. Folorunso


Abstract
| Pages: 33-42
A total of fourteen rats were fed with diets containing either 10 % groundnut oil (control group) or 10 % Balanites aegyptiaca seed oil (experimental group) for six weeks. At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed and blood samples and some organs of the rats in both groups were collected for analysis. The albino rats appeared to suffer no toxicological effect and weekly monitoring of the rats showed good physical appearance. The rats in the experimental groups displayed fairly similar body weight gain when compared with those from the control group. There was no significant difference between the haematological and histopathological results obtained for both the experimental and control groups except for the liver of two of the rats in the experimental that showed some lesion. There might be need for refining of the seed oil before it can be safe for animal/human consumption.

Biological Treatment of Leather-Tanning Industrial Wastewater Using Free Living Bacteria

Author(s):

Ebtesam El-Bestawy -- Fahad Al-Fassi -- Ranya Amer -- Reham Aburokba


Abstract
| Pages: 46-65
The present study aimed to investigate decontamination of tannery wastewater in terms of removal capacity and efficiency using indigenous and/or exogenous bacteria. Wastewater samples were collected from leather tanning factory. Three out of 17 indigenous tannery wastewater plus 3 exogenous bacterial isolates were identified and used in a batch mode remediation process as individual or mixed free living cultures. The tested tannery effluents had extremely high levels of all the tested parameters indicating high pollution potential, dangerous effects on the receiving environments and creating many treatment difficulties. Treatment of the tannery effluent was a function of time and bacterial species. Pseudomonas stutzeri (PS) considered the most while Bacillus sp. (RE12) considered the least efficient in removing all the tested parameters. Removal efficiencies (REs) were significantly and proportionally correlated with time regardless of bacterial species or parameters. However, bulk changes in all parameters were achieved within the first 24 h. The highest removals recorded were 86.7, 94.14%, 79.16, 95.64, 36.33, 93.66 and 44.91% for total suspended solids (TSS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), fat, oil and grease (FOG), ammonia (NH3), chromium (Cr) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S), respectively after only 24 h. On the other hand, total dissolved solids (TDS) and nitrates (NO3) recorded the highest increase (97.68 and 45.87%) after one and 7 days, respectively. Despite the highly efficient removals achieved for the tested parameters, their residual levels were slightly higher than the maximum permissible limits (MPL) for the safe discharge. Therefore, it is highly recommended to use the most promising bacteria in a fixed form to bring the effluent to the safe limits for the environment.

Different Factors Effects In Lactating Mother’s Milk Compositions

Author(s):

Haider Zaidan -- Mona Al-Terehi -- Mohammed Baqur Al-Shuhaib -- Ali Al-Saadi -- Mufeed Ewadh


Abstract
| Pages: 45-52
This study was carried to estimate the effects of different factors on the total protein and lipid concentrations in lactating mother's milk, such as; home, age, body mass index, lactating stage and negative smoking habitat. Total Protein concentration and lipid concentration were estimated using Bradford method and Gravimetric method respectively. Results showed that lipid concentration(L.C) increased with age, BMI, lactation stage, and affected by negative smoking and increased in rural, while protein concentration (P.C)was less effected by age, and decreased in obese and in negative smoking mothers, also it decreased in urban mothers. Protein profile showed slight differences between nonsmoking and negative smoking milk using SDS-PAGE electrophoresis.

Hydrotherapy versus Laxative for Treatment of Postoperative Constipation among Orthopedic Patients

Author(s):

Labiba Abd El-kader Mohamed -- Naglaa Fawzy Hanafy


Abstract
| Pages: 50-63
Constipation is a common health problem that orthopedic patients may experience during the recovery phase. There are a wide-range of treatment methods to alleviate all symptoms of constipation and to regulate bowel habit back to baseline. Its treatment includes pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapy. Aim of the study: to compare between two treatment approaches (pharmacological in the form of laxative and non-pharmacological in the form of hydrotherapy) to relieve postoperative constipation for orthopedic patients. Design; quasi-experimental design was used. Setting: This study was conducted at departments of orthopedic surgery, at a general governmental Hospital in Cairo, Sample: A purposive sample of 100 male and female adult patients second day post orthopedic surgery (fixation and traction), divided into two equal groups (50 each), was recruited in this study. Tools: data were collected utilizing the following tools: 1) The Structured Interview Questionnaire, including socio-demographic and related medical data. 2) The Constipation Assessment Scale, developed by (McMillan and Williams, 1989). Results: the study findings revealed that all patients under the study their age ranged between 20 to 40 years, the majority were males. Findings revealed a statistical significant difference between the two groups in intestinal movement and constipation assessment symptoms. The laxative group expresses more intestinal movement and constipation symptoms complain more than hydrotherapy group after implementing the treatment measure. Recommendations; Further research is warranted to conduct studies in nursing to relieve patient's constipation for different types of hospitalized patient and in different hospital settings to apply evidenced based nursing practice.

Antibacterial Activity of Citrullus Colocynthis against different types of bacteria

Author(s):

Ilham Bnyan -- Hamid Hasan -- Mufeed Ewadh


Abstract
| Pages: 48-51
In the present study, antibacterial efficiency of citrullus colocynthesis (L.) schrad was Studied on seven types of pathogenic bacteria isolated from different sites infection, Escherichia. coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis, Streptococcus pneumonia ,Streptococcus agalactia, Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus. Water and ethanol extract were used for antibacterial assay. The inhibitory effects of this extracts were compared with standard antibiotics, cefotaxime. The ethanolic extract showed inhibitory activity against Escherichia. Coli, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactia. Water extract exhibited less or no activity against all types of bacteria. Results Indicated that ethanolic extract has a similar inhibitory effect with cefotaxime.

The Basic Characteristics of the Study of Butterfly (Rhopalocera) Fauna in the Mountain Massif of Sharr, Pollog Valley and the National Park Of Mavrovo

Author(s):

Xhezair Abdija -- Nexhbedin Beadini -- Sheqibe Beadini


Abstract
| Pages: 28-34
Research on Butterfly (Rhopalocera) fauna in the mountain massif of Sharr, Pollog valley and the National Park of Mavrovo is being explored for several years now by different researchers. With special emphasis, the researchers consider that it should be explored again because this group requires a dimension-specific study with the particular research character on finding eventually any new possible species for the territory in research. Research so far has been done to over 1000 specimens belonging to the family Lycaenidae. Until now, there have been more than 3 subfamilies with 21 genera and 42 species. Samples were collected at 18 stations of different heights above sea level and different habitats. For each survey station were recorded data on habitat type, such as the sea level Altitude (ɑ), geographic coordinate Latitude (φ), and length (λ) Longitude.

Potential Panacea to the Complexities of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

Author(s):

Ebimieowei Etebu


Abstract
| Pages: 53-59
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows the exponential amplification of target DNA sequences, and has greatly impacted the world of scientific research. Although the reagents, equipment needed and the process (denaturation, annealing and elongation) appears simple and straightforward, PCR is adorned by complexities. Hence this paper seeks to discuss the complexities often encountered whilst performing PCR. Findings showed that primers, annealing temperature, wholesomeness and purity of template DNA, PCR contaminants and inhibitory substances, choice of polymerase, Magnessium chloride concentration, and number of cycles influence the outcome of a PCR. These factors sometimes enhance quality but compromise yield and vice versa. A high amount of Magnesium chloride or number of cycles in a PCR would result to a good yield but compromises quality and vice versa. In contrast, a high quality but lower yield of PCR is attained where the annealing temperature is either close to or higher than the melting temperatures of the primers. Thus performing PCR is more or less choosing between quality and yield, and this paper would enable researchers strike the needed balance to overcome some of the associated complexities.

Relationship between Body Mass Index and in-hospital Outcomes of Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients at a Selected Critical Care Unit of a University Hospital - Egypt

Author(s):

Hanaa Ali Ahmed Elfeky


Abstract
| Pages: 64-80
Myocardial infarction (MI) is acute and catastrophic event. It is one of the leading causes to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Multiple risk factors were found to be responsible for the occurrence of MI; among these factors are overweight and obesity. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to study the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and in-hospital outcomes among acute myocardial infarction patients at a selected critical care unit of a university hospital. Two research questions were formulated:1- What is the body mass index profile of acute myocardial infarction patients admitted to a selected critical care unit of a university hospital?; and 2: What is the relationship between body mass index and different in-hospital outcomes of acute myocardial infarction patients admitted to a selected critical care unit of a university hospital?. A descriptive exploratory research design was utilized. The current study was conducted at a selected critical care unit of a university hospital, in Egypt. A sample of convenience including 60 adult male and female patients was included in the current study. Two tools were developed by the researcher and utilized to collect data pertinent to the current study: Sociodemographic and medical data sheet which covers data about patients’ age, gender, diagnosis, body weight, height, length of ICU stay, past medical history, current or recent smoking, and at home medications; and Patient’s assessment sheet which was developed based on Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network (ACTION) Registry-Get with the Guidelines (GWTG). It covers data such as: patients’ presentation; laboratory findings; reperfusion strategy; medications within 24 hours of admission and at discharge; discharge intervention and in- hospital outcomes. Results: males represented the great majority (90%) of the studied sample. They had different BMI categories: overweight, grade I, and grade II obesity, in percentages of 33.3%, 30%, and 25% respectively, with a mean BMI of 31.52+ 4.96. No significant statistical relationship was found between BMI and gender. The studied group admitted as a result of acute anterior MI, acute inferior MI, and acute unspecific MI, in percentages of 45%, 30%& 25% respectively. No significant statistical relationship was found between BMI and diagnosis. Around two thirds of the studied group (58.2%) experienced different in hospital problems/outcomes: recurrent MI attacks (26.7%), cardiogenic shock (18.3%), C.V.S (6.6%), and Death (6.6%). High significant statistical relationship was found between BMI and in-hospital outcomes (Chi square = 46.13 at p<0.004). Based on findings of the present study it can be concluded that the majority of acute myocardial infarction patients had above normal BMI values ranging from over weight to the third grade obesity (in the current study), and obviously was significantly related to the adverse in hospital outcomes. Therefore, the current study recommends, the important role of the critical care nurse in monitoring myocardial infarction patients’ nutritional status through assessing their body mass index, thus providing individualized in hospital / at discharge instructions, which could enhance patients’ outcomes, and reduce complications.

Green nanotechnology: Anticancer Activity of Silver Nanoparticles using Citrullus colocynthis aqueous extracts

Author(s):

Alaa M. Shawkey -- Mohamed A. Rabeh -- Abeer K. Abdulall -- Ashraf O. Abdellatif


Abstract
| Pages: 60-70
Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles is a growing research area because of their potential applications in nanomedicines. The green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) is a convenient, cheap and environmentally safe approach compared to chemical synthesis. In the present study, we synthesized SNPs from AgNO3 using aqueous extracts (AEs) of fruits, leaves, roots and seeds of Citrullus colocynthis as reducing and capping agents. The SNPs were early detected in the aqueous extracts by color change to the reddish brown, and further were confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analysis. The TEM analysis of SNPs showed spherical nanoparticles with mean size between 7 to 19nm. The anticancer activity of SNPs has been assessed invitro. MTT assay on human cancer cell lines of colon (HCT-116), breast (MCF-7), liver (Hep-G2) and intestine (Caco- 2) showed good anticancer activity which was negligible for the aqueous plant extracts. Regarding to the tested cell lines the Hep-G2 cell line and HCT-116 were the most sensitive cell line towards the cytotoxic activities of the tested SNPs, while the Caco-2 was the most resistant cell line towards the cytotoxic activities.

Hearing Loss among Elderly Patients in an Ear Clinic in Nigeria

Author(s):

Adedayo O. Olaosun -- Olawale Ogundiran -- James E. Tobih


Abstract
| Pages: 81-86
Background - Hearing Loss is a very common disabling condition among the elderly. It is estimated that above the age of 60, one in four people have some degree of hearing loss and over the age of 70, to one in two. Approximately one-third of persons above 65 years have disabling hearing loss. This study was to investigate the pattern of hearing among the elderly patients in an ear clinic in Nigeria. Methods - Eighty-eight elderly patients were studied ex-post facto. These were the patients aged over 65 among 586 patients who had presented for hearing loss and had been sent for Pure Tone Audiometry over a period of three years. Results - The eighty eight patients studied comprised 15% of the 586 patients who had been seen for Pure Tone Audiometry. Mean age was 72.4 years (SD= 6.58). The Male: Female ratio was 1.9:1. There was normal hearing in 18%. More than eight out of ten (82%) had hearing loss. Among those with hearing loss, more than eight out of ten (82%) had disabling hearing loss. Although a mixed hearing loss pattern predominated, there where almost as many with only sensorineural hearing loss. Thus more than seven out of ten had some sensorineural hearing loss. And although the majority of those with hearing loss had the classical sloping presbyacisis pattern, other patterns were also found. Conclusion - Disabling hearing loss is very common among the elderly. It is usually due to presbyacusis but can also be from other causes. Since there is a risk of subsequent psychological problems and social isolation, all caregivers of elderly people should be aware of this and provide care or guidance appropriately. In addition, strategic initiatives directed to the elderly, the general public, health workers, professionals working with the elderly, ear and hearing specialists, government entities and Non Governmental Organizations are needed to address the issue.

Construction of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell with Bouganvilla, Cordia Sebestena and Talinium Triangulare Flower

Author(s):

Awodibo Michael -- Boyo Adenike -- Oluwole Surukite -- Abudusalam Ibrahim


Abstract
| Pages: 71-76
Dye sensitized solar cells, are one of the most promising devices for solar energy conversion into electricity, due to their reduced production cost and low environmental impact especially those sensitized by natural dyes. In this study, three-flowers were used as sensitizer for the dye sensitized solar cell namely Bouganvillae flower (X), Cordea sebestina flower (Y) and Talinium triangulare flower (Z). The Cold extraction method was used with acidified methanol as a solvent to extract the dye from the three samples. The outdoor energy conversion efficiency and fill factor measurement of the solar cells sensitized by Bouganvillae flower extract is 0.15% and 0.56 while the indoor values are 0.006% and 0.54 respectively. For the extract of Cordea sebestina flower, outdoor energy conversion efficiency and fill factor values of the solar cells is 0.074% and 0.85 while the indoor values are 0.0083 and 0.47 respectively. Lastly, the outdoor conversion efficiency and fill factor value of Talinium triangulare flower extract is 0.059% and 0.9 while the indoor values are 0.017% and 0.51 respectively. Comparison of the samples outdoor and indoor measurement shows that solar cell made from Bouganvillae flower has the highest efficiency and would be very useful as a natural dye for dye sensitized solar cell.

Prevalence of HIV Infection in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Suspects; Assessing the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria

Author(s):

Okonkwo Robert Chuks -- Anyabolu Ae -- Ifeanyichukwu Martin -- Kalu Stephen O -- Onwunzo Maria C -- Chukwuka Chiamaka


Abstract
| Pages: 87-90
After decades of decline, TB made a dramatic comeback, a situation largely fuelled by the emergence of the HIV pandemic, amongst other factors, including overcrowding, poverty and weak health care system. HIV/TB co-infection, presently poses serious public health challenges especially in the African region, including Nigeria. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV amongst PTB suspects in Nnewi, Nigeria. A total of 1544 pulmonary TB suspects assessing the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi who were screened for TB using Ziehl Neelsen Sputum smear microscopy were also subjected to HIV counseling and testing (HCT). Of the 1544 PTB suspects 184 (11.9%) reacted to HIV antibodies with a higher frequency in the females (13.3%) than the males (10.4%). Total of 237 (15.4%) of the 1544 suspects had pulmonary TB infection with the prevalence being higher in the males (19.9%) than in the females (11.2%). A total of 22 (1.42%) were HIV/TB co-infected, with the males (1.6%) having a slightly higher frequency than the females (1.2%). The age distributions showed that the age groups of 31-40 and 41-50 years had the highest frequencies for HIV and TB infections in this study. The infection rate was lower among participants below 20 and above 60 years of age. More accurate method of detecting TB may be applied in future work to help understand the real burden of TB amongst HIV patients.

Semantic Intentions and Relations in Children with Intellectual Disability (ID) in the Mental Age Range of 4 to 7 Years

Author(s):

Prathamesh Bailoor -- T.A.Subba Rao


Abstract
| Pages: 77-83
Children with intellectual disability show a wide range of speech and language problems. The research on language acquisition in India has been carried out mostly through dissertations (Karanth, 1993). Krupa, (2008) showed that cognitive development influences language development to a greater extent. However, cognitive development and language development do not have linear relationship. The present paper study attempts to modify the method of analyzing semantic data, by incorporating the frequency rather than the presence of the use of each semantic element in the spontaneous language samples of ID children with mental age of 4 to 7 years and 4 to 7 year old normal children. Comparison between the two groups would give us valuable information to develop better methods of assessment as well as intervention. Hence this study in general goes a step further in measuring the frequency of responses of semantic intentions and semantic relations of similar population between the ages of 4-7 years. The present study could not include video recording for data collection. Future study will need to include video recording in individual and group settings to elicit wider semantic data.

Study the role of Estradiol and Luteinizing hormones in breast tumors incidence in the women in Al-Najaf Governorate- Iraq

Author(s):

Ali H. Al-Saadi -- Ezzate H. Ajeena -- Haider K. Zaidan -- Mufeed Ewadh


Abstract
| Pages: 91-97
This study aims to illustration the role of some important risk factors which including age, age at menarche , menopausal status, the levels of estradiol(E2) and luteinizing hormones(LH) in the increasing breast tumors incidence by using 120 women, divided into three groups; control group including forty healthy women, benign group containing forty women with breast benign tumor and malignant group of forty women with malignant breast tumor, this last group subdivided into; malignant presurgery and malignant post surgery groups each one contain twenty women. The results showed that benign breast tumors are more common in women with interval age 31-40 years whereas malignant breast tumors were more common in women with interval age 41-50 years. Early age at menarche wasn’t significantly associated with increasing breast cancer incidence, contrariwise menopausal status which was significantly associated with increasing this disease . The results revealed a significant elevation P≤ 0.05 in the levels of estradiol E2, and Luteinizing hormones in the women with breast cancer before tumor excision and reduction in the levels of these hormones in the women after tumor excision indicating the role of these hormones in the initiation or promotion breast cancer. In conclusion, this study revealed that breast cancer incidence increased in women in forties and fifties of age and increasing the levels of endogenous hormones such as Estradiol, and luteinizing hormones can increased risk of developing breast cancer especially in postmenopausal women.

The Reliability of Using Vitek 2 Compact System to Detect Extended-Spectrum Beta-lactamase-producing Isolates in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Accra, Ghana

Author(s):

Henry Kwadwo Hackman -- George Osei-Adjei -- Andrew Gordon -- Emmanuel Laryea -- Solomon Quaye -- Lawrence Anison -- Charles A Brown -- Kingsley Twum-Danso


Abstract
| Pages: 84-90
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are plasmid-mediated beta-lactamases that are capable of hydrolysing β-lactams except carbapenems and cephamycins. The global increased prevalence of ESBLproducing bacteria creates an urgent need for laboratory diagnostic methods that will accurately and rapidly identify the presence of ESBL phenotypes in clinical isolates. The Vitek 2 System (bioMérieux, France) is a rapid automated microbiological system used for bacteria and yeast identification, antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), resistance mechanism detection and epidemiologic trending and reporting using its advanced expert system. This present work sought to determine the reliability of routinely using Vitek 2 System to accurately and rapidly detect ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae in Accra. The ESBL phenotypes for 400 E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates were determined using the Vitek 2 system and combined disc synergy method. The results were used to determine the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value of the Vitek 2 ESBL test through comparative analysis with the combined disk synergy method which is the reference method recommended by CLSI. The findings of this work indicated that the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Vitek 2 system was 98.5%, 98.9%, 99% and 98.5% respectively. Consequently, Vitek 2 system is a reliable semi-automated microbiology system which may be used for routine, accurate and rapid detection of ESBL strains in health facilities in Accra, Ghana.

Chronic Consumption of Abelmoschus Esculentus and Piper Guineense Induce Testicular-Toxicity in Wistar Rats, Histopathological Finding

Author(s):

Idorenyin Umoh -- Samson Oyebadejo -- Enobong Bassey -- Uduakobong Uko


Abstract
| Pages: 98-105
Histopathology of the Testes is one of the parameters used in assessing its micro-structural integrity. In this study, the effect of the oral chronic consumption of 500mg/kg of Abelmoschus esculentus and 20mg/kg of piper guineense on the Testes of wistar rats was assessed. Twenty adult wistar male rats weighing (123-207g), divided into four groups 1, II, III &1V, group 1 as control and groups II, III &IV as experimental groups. The rats in the control group were administered with distilled water, while rats in group II and III were administered with 500mg/kg of Abelmoschus esculentus and 20mg/kg of piper guineense respectively. Group IV received a combination of the two extracts. After 28days of administration of extracts, animals were sacrificed Testes was extracted and processed to paraffin section, cut at 5micron, stained, and observed histopathologically under light microscope. Result showed numerous atrophied and damaged seminiferous tubules, degenerated myoid cells, spermatogenic lining cells, spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids, spermatozoa and lumen filled with semen, degenerated interstitial cells of leydig and interstitial fibrosis against the background of connective tissues with marked area of necrosis in group II and III and IV as compared to the control group 1. Statistical value in the weight of the body and testes showed significant value (p<0.05) compared to control. In conclusion, Abelmoschus esculentus and Piper guineense has severe toxicity effect on the testes of albino wistar rats.