International Journal of Analytical, Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences

Online ISSN: 2278-0246

Print ISSN: xxxx-xxxx



Publisher: IJAPBS
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Study of Division of Brachial Artery in 100 Cadavers

Author(s):

Sharadkumar Pralhad Sawant


Abstract
| Pages: 1-5
Materials & Methods: The study on division of brachial artery was performed on 100 (200 specimens of superior extremities) embalmed donated cadavers (90 males & 10 females) in the department of Anatomy of K.J.Somaiya Medical College, Sion, Mumbai, India. The dissection of the arm was done meticulously to expose the brachial artery. The termination of brachial artery was observed. The neuro muscular pattern of the upper limb were also observed. The photographs of the high level termination of the brachial artery were taken for proper documentation. Observations: Out of 200 specimens of superior extremities the high level termination of brachial artery was observed in 54 specimens. The brachial artery bifurcated in the axilla in 6 specimens. The brachial artery bifurcated in the upper part of the arm in 12 specimens, in the middle part of the arm in 8 specimens and the brachial artery bifurcated above the cubital fossa in the lower part of the arm in 22 specimens. The brachial artery trifurcated in 6 specimens. The radial artery gave origin to the common interosseous artery in the cubital fossa which terminated into anterior and posterior interosseous arteries. The further course of the radial artery was normal. The variant ulnar artery travelled downwards and crossed the median nerve anteriorly in the cubital fossa and travelled obliquely superficial to the superficial flexor muscles till it reached the ulnar nerve. The further course of the ulnar artery was normal. There were no associated altered anatomy of the nerves and muscles were observed. All the variations were unilateral. Conclusion: Topographical anatomy of the normal and abnormal variations of the brachial artery are clinically important for surgeons, orthopaedicians operating on the supracondylar fracture of humerus and radiologists performing angiographic studies on the upper limb.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Cobalt in Biological and Environmental Samples Using 2, 6-Pyridinedicarboxaldehyde, Thiosemicarbazone

Author(s):

 Md. Fakruddin Ali Ahmed


Abstract
| Pages: 6-10
Analytical application of 2, 6-Pyridinedicarboxaldehyde, thiosemicarbazone (PDATSC) is described for the direct non-extractive spectrophotometric determination of cobalt (427 nm), the synthesized and characterized using IR and NMR spectral data. The reagents react with, cobalt in sodium acetate-acetic acid buffer solution to form yellow colored 1:1 (M: L) complex. The colour reactions are instantaneous and absorbance values remain constant for over 24 h. The molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity of (PDATSC) methods are found to be 2.31 X 10 4 mol-1 cm-1 and 0.003 μg cm-2 of Co II .The systems obey Beer’s law in the range of 0.119-3.54μg/ml of Co II. Since (PDATSC) method is more sensitive it was applied for the determination of, cobalt in biological and environmental samples.

Cardiomyopathy in Patients Infected With Human Immune Deficiency Virus.

Author(s):

Nnamah, N.K, Igboh, N. M; Onwubiko, D., Chigbu, L.N., Agomuo, E.N., Onyesom, c.A, Maduagwun, C.A, Iheanacho, K, M.E., Emuchey, C.I.


Abstract
| Pages: 11-13
Many patients with infection by the HIV show an increase in the levels of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme. This enzyme inaddition to Aspartate Transaminase and Creatin Kinase can be use in monitoring normal cardiomyopapathy.It was in this instance that we decided to employ the three biochemical parameters( lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Aspartate Transaminase and Creatin Kinase ) to investigate cardiomyopapathy in HIV sero positive and those sero positive HIV on antiretroviral drugs. HIV patients were on antiretroviral drugs (triviro-LNS-Lamivudine, Nevirapine and Starvudine) 1-2 pills daily depending on the CD4 count. Probably, have been on the drug for the duration of 2- 3 years. One hundred and fifty subjects were selected and placed in three groups of fifty each, HIV positive persons on drugs, HIV positive not on drugs and HIV negative individuals. The patients’ blood was collected and serum separated and used for the analysis .Randox kits were used for the assay .All analysis was based on colorimetric method. The results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using one-way analysis of variance. The result showed a significant increase in the levels of the Transaminase and lactate Dehydrogenase ( AST and LDH) in HIV infected patients on drugs and those not on drugs compared to control(P <0.05).Though, this increase was very obvious in those on antiretroviral drugs. On the other hand, there was a remarkable increase in the level of CK in patients on drugs and those not on drugs .But when the levels of AST and CK were compared in HIV patients on drugs and those not on drugs with healthy individuals, there was a significant increase in HIV positive patients on drugs and those not on drugs. (P <0.05).

Morphological Study of the Insertion of Brachialis Muscle and Its Clinical Significance

Author(s):

Sharadkumar Pralhad Sawant


Abstract
| Pages: 14-16
superior extremities) embalmed donated cadavers (90 males & 10 females) in the department of Anatomy of K.J.Somaiya Medical College, Sion, Mumbai, India. The dissection of the arm and forearm was done meticulously to expose the brachialis muscle. The insertion of brachialis muscle was observed. The neuro vascular pattern of the upper limb were also observed. The photographs of the insertion of brachialis muscles were taken for proper documentation. Observations: Out of 200 specimens of superior extremities the insertion of brachialis muscle in to the bicipital aponeurosis was observed in 4 specimens. In all the 4 specimens along with the biceps brachii muscle, the brachialis got inserted in to the bicipital aponeurosis. The bicipital aponeurosis was merged with the deep fascia of fore arm which got merged with the aponeurosis attached to the posterior subcutaneous border of the ulna. The median nerve and the brachial artery travelled deep to this additional insertion of brachialis muscle in to the bicipital aponeurosis. The associated altered anatomy of the nerves and vessels were not observed. All the variations were unilateral. Conclusion: The knowledge of such type of variation is clinically important for Anatomists, Physiotherapists, Neurologists, Radiologists, Surgeons, Plastic Surgeons and Orthopedicians.

Adenoma of Appendix

Author(s):

Dr. C. Bharath


Abstract
| Pages: 17-18
One case of adenoma of appendix was diagnosed at our Pathology department, Medical College (VIMS), Bellary. Karnataka, which is an uncommon tumor and was discovered incidentally. Histologically showing, villous like structure of mucus secreting epithelium. The histologic nature and literature is reviewed here. Background : Neoplasms of appendix accounts for 0,5%. Most appendiceal adenomas are incidental findings and the macroscopic appearance of appendix may be normal. A cystadenoma is a dilated mucus filled appendix, lined by adenomatous mucosa. Appendiceal adenomas are uncommon. Objective: To know the histogenesis of the lesion, as it may progress to adenocarcinoma. Method : An appendecetomy specimen was received at our Pathology department, Medical College (VIMS), Bellary. Grossly the appendix was edematous and cut section showed lumen with mucus. Multiple sections were cut and stained. Results : Histologically, showed thickened mucosa, which was replaced by villi, lined by mucus secreting cells and pools of mucin in the luminal part. Conclusion: It is rare tumor of appendix, also it is associated with tumors of other sites, hence a through search for other neoplasms should be made. Also 20% of these cases are prone for colonic cancer and hence to be investigated clinically and histologically.

Morphology of Coracoid Process and Glenoid Cavity in Adult Human Scapulae

Author(s):

Pahuja Kavita, Singh Jaskaran and Geeta


Abstract
| Pages: 19-22
Present study carried out on the 129 dry scapulas (67 right and 62 left sides) of unknown age and sex. In scapula, the coracoid process is arising from the antero-lateral aspect of the scapula, superior and medial to the glenoid fossa. The mean value of the coracoids length was found 41.0 mm in total scapulae. The coracoids width was found 7.4 mm in total scapulae. The mean of the coraco-glenoid distance was found 23.1 in total scapulae. The Glenoid cavity is the head of the scapula. The mean value of vertical length of the glenoid cavity was found 35.0 mm in total samples. The mean value of the maximum width of the glenoid cavity was found 24.9 mm in total scapulae. The width taken of the glenoid cavity from its upper half segment was found 16.6 mm in total. Knowledge of the normal anatomy and morphometry of the shoulder joint’s variant is important in the diagnosis and management of diseases of the shoulder joint.

Study of Variant Heads of Triceps Muscle with Its Developmental Basis

Author(s):

Sharadkumar Pralhad Sawant


Abstract
| Pages: 23-26
Materials & Methods: The study on variant heads of triceps muscle was performed on 100 (200 specimens of superior extremities) embalmed donated cadavers (90 males & 10 females) in the department of Anatomy of K.J.Somaiya Medical College, Sion, Mumbai, India. The dissection of the arm and forearm was done meticulously to expose the triceps muscle. The variant heads of triceps muscle was observed. The neuro vascular pattern of the upper limb were also observed. The photographs of the variant heads of triceps muscle were taken for proper documentation. Observations: Out of 200 specimens of superior extremities the variant heads of triceps muscle were observed in 4 specimens. In all the 4 specimens, the fourth head of the triceps brachii muscle was originated from the posteromedial aspect of the shaft of the humerus just below the surgical neck. The variant fourth head of the triceps brachii muscle was supplied by the radial nerve. The fourth head passed directly over the neurovascular bundle containing the radial nerve and profunda brachii artery. The long, lateral and fourth heads of the triceps brachii muscle converged to form a superficial tendon which was inserted into the posterior part of the superior surface of the olecranon process of the ulna. The medial head of triceps muscle was partly inserted into the superficial tendon and partly into the posterior part of the superior surface of the olecranon process of the ulna. The associated altered anatomy of the nerves and vessels were not observed. All the variations were unilateral. Conclusion: The role of additional muscles in compression syndrome is a well known phenomenon. The knowledge of such type of variation is clinically important for Anatomists, Neurologists, Radiologists, Surgeons, Plastic surgeons and Orthopedicians.

Solid State Characterization of Linezolid Crystal Forms

Author(s):

Evrykleia G. Karagiannidou


Abstract
| Pages: 27-36
The pharmaceutical industry utilizes a wide variety of techniques to research, develop and manufacture active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Linezolid is a synthetic antibacterial agent of the oxazolidinone class used for the treatment of serious infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria that are resistant to several other antibiotics. Two crystal modifications (polymorphs) of Linezolid have been obtained through recrystallization using organic solvents under different conditions. The two forms were fully characterized with x-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and hot stage polarizing optical microscopy. The study revealed one metastable form, undergoing heat mediated transformation to another form. Such an observation is of great importance since it can affect the stability and pharmaceutical performance of an active pharmaceutical ingredient and final dosage form.

Molecular Identification of Pergularia Daemia (Forssk.) Chiov. Using Trnl Intron-Trnl- F Chloroplast Genome

Author(s):

 S.T.V.Raghavamma, N.Rama Rao , K.R.S.Sambasiva Rao and G.DevelaRao


Abstract
| Pages: 37-44
Pergularia daemia (Forssk) chivo is a shrub of Asclepiadaceae family found in the plains throughout India and in tropical countries worldwide. Asclepiadaceae members are known for their rich source of glucosides. The present work is taken up to identify the plant species at molecular level. The chloroplast trnl- F region was amplified from extracted total genomic DNA using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. Sequence of the dominant DGGE band revealed that Pergularia daemia in the tested leaves was Pergularia daemia (100% similarity to ITS sequence of Pergularia daemia). This sequence was deposited in NCBI with the accession no. JN205300.

Nephro and Hepatic Dysfunction in Diabetic Patients

Author(s):

 Nnamah, N.K, Igboh, N. M; Onwubiko, D., Chigbu, L.N., Agomuo, E.N., Onyesom, C.A, Maduagwun, C.A, Iheanacho, K, M.E and Emuchey, C.I.


Abstract
| Pages: 45-48
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that affects the way the body handles basic food components like carbohydrates, protein and fats. This is mostly due to lack or abnormality in action or effect of the hormone insulin. So much attention is being given recently to Communicable diseases like HIV, Tuberculosis and Malaria at the detriment of the emerging epidemic of Non-Communicable disease like Diabetes, hypertension and heart disease .Incidentally, over the past 30years the prevalence of Diabetes has been increasing steadily .Conversely, when there is reduction in ATP production as it is the case in most chronic diseases .There seem to be increase in urate production in purine nucleotide cycle .It was on this basis that we monitored the serum glucose and uric acid, urine uric acid and transminases activities in fifty diabetic patients on drugs, another fifty not on drugs and twenty healthy individuals who served as control. However the individuals were 20 to 60 years. Randox kits were used for the biochemical parameters monitored after the blood was collected from each group and serum separated. The results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using one-way analysis of variance. The result of the study revealed a slight increase in the levels of uric acid both serum and urine in diabetic patients compared to control. Though, this was more notable in urine uric acid level in diabetic patients not on drugs. However the hepatic enzymes were significantly raised in diabetic patients on drugs compared to the other two groups. The finding of this work suggests that diabetic patients are more likely to develop arthritis later in life if the uric acid is not checked and managed properly.

Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of 2-Hydroxyacetanilide by Chloramine-T in Hcl Medium

Author(s):

H. P. Jayadevappa and G. Nagendrappa


Abstract
| Pages: 49-55
The oxidation kinetics of 2-Hydroxyacetanilide (HA) by sodium N-chloro p-toluenesulfonamide (CAT) in hydrochloric acid medium has been studied at 303K. The reaction stoichiometry was determined and oxidation products were identified. The reaction rate shows a first order dependence on [CAT] and fractional order on [HA] whereas inverse fractional order on [H+]. The products of reaction and dielectric constant have no considerable effect on the rate. The rate remains same with the variation in the ionic strength of the medium indicating the involvement of non ionic species in rate determining step. There were no free radicals during the course of reaction. Thermodynamic parameters were computed by performing the kinetic runs at different temperatures. A mechanism consistent with observed parameters is proposed and rate law is derived.

Current Scenario of Antimicrobial Resistance in Nicus: An Emerging Therapeutic Confront

Author(s):

Manisha Shah and Pratibha Desai


Abstract
| Pages: 56-61
Purpose: The present study was carried out to analyze bacteriological profile and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of isolates caused infections in neonates admitted to NICUs, Surat, Gujarat. Material and Methods: During December 2010 to January 2012, 1611 different clinical samples were collected. Pathogens were isolated and identified by using strict microbiological procedures according to Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology, 9th edition. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed using the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method as per CLSI guidelines. Results: In our study, positivity of bacterial infections was found in 21.22% of the cases. More incidences of sepsis were found (251/342). Among 342 isolates 211 were identified as gram negatives and rest as gram positives. 12 cases of infections due to fungi were excluded from the study. E. coli and Klebsiella spp. were predominant isolates caused neonatal infections. Studied strains of E. coli showed higher susceptibility to Clindamycin (98.88%), Meropenum (90.78%) and Imipenem (86.00 %), but even more effectively to combination of drugs like Piperacillin/Tazobactam (96.84%). Conclusion: Higher prevalence of sepsis is a serious consideration. Most of all gram negatives are resistance to most of third generation of cephalosporins, common drugs generally used. Combination of drugs is suggestive for therapy rather than single antimicrobial. Over all good in vitro activity was observed in Clindamycin and Imipenem.. Close watch for antimicrobial resistance is warranted to glow such findings that can represent current status and draw proper line of therapy.