Arts and Design Studies

Online ISSN: 2225-0603

Print ISSN: 2224-610X



Publisher: International Institute for Science, Technology and Education
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Urban Housing Issues in Nigerian Cities: A Case for Real Estate Maintenance as a Sustainable Option for Trans-Ekulu Housing Estate, Enugu, Nigeria

Author(s):

Kingsley Efobi -- Christopher Anierobi


Abstract
| Pages: 1-5
Housing delivery has become a global issue. The millennium development goal identified housing as a basic human need and proposed shelter for all by 2015. Here in Nigeria, the rate of rapid urbanization, rural-urban migratio and haphazard development of houses in some Nigerian cities have resulted to the associated blight, squalor and slum conditions, occasioned by high occupancy ratio and congestion and these have been the bane of urban housing delivery, especially in Enugu. As the 553rd city in the world as well as the capital City of Enugu state, the City of Enugu has many educational, industrial and governmental establishments. The city enjoys an urban growth rate of 2.5% and a current urban population of about 927,642 residents. As a result, Enugu faces high housing needs that require a sustainable approach. This paper focuses on real estate maintenance as a sustainable option for the improvement of housing estates in Enugu using the Trans-Ekulu housing estate as a case study. 10% of the housing stock in each street of the estate was studied. A total of 114 household heads of the randomly selected houses were the respondents. Among other things; the study revealed that approximately 83% of the total housing stock in the estate was dilapidated due to gross lack of maintenance as measured by the presence of rusted and leaking roof, cracked walls and weak foundation, broken doors and windows, unpainted or deteriorated paints, deteriorated housing facilities and non availability of some facilities and landscape elements. Policy review and integrated action and co-operation among relevant professionals involved in the planning, development and management of housing estates in Enugu as well as public participation among others were recommended.

Change: The Philosophical and the Aesthetical Concept Inspired by the Arab Spring Movements

Author(s):

Insaf Rabadi


Abstract
| Pages: 1-7
Arab revolutionary movements (the so called Arab spring movements) grew as the Arab nations are on the verge of the end of an era nearing its enclosure, phasing a historic transformation of their people passing the dark shadows of autocracies and dictatorships, a stage missing the role of people and forcing to choose between tyrants and invaders. And because the scene is as big as the event itself, it's difficult for any individual effort to put a clear perspective that reads the deep intellectual, cultural, political, social and economical reflections of these movements, even it's harder to follow up this the revolutionary generation stunning the crowds, cheering for change, bringing down regimes and looking forward to build the future, as it is the future of the Arab nation. To join back the global civilization, the Arab nation can restore its position among nations with its creative and challenging generations, and these revolutionary movements were the first steps towards this change. Thus, this study aimed at finding out the trends and the implications of these movements rocking the Arab countries, and exploring the dream of the new generations.

Traditional Residential Architecture in Cairo from a Green Architecture Perspective

Author(s):

Nermine Abdel Gelil Mohamed -- Waleed Hussein Ali


Abstract
| Pages: 6-26
In Egypt, traditional residential architecture of Islamic eras accorded a great deal of importance and respect to the environment, the source of the construction materials that give form to architectural elements. It also contributes to creating architectural spaces that realize mental and physical comfort of users while complementing the surrounding environment. In this paper, various components and design patterns of the traditional residential architecture in Cairo (Cairene houses) were observed and analyzed from a green architecture perspective in order to determine best building techniques and elements of environmentally friendly design. First, the climatic system of Egypt is explained, second a description of the traditional residential architecture in Cairo is provided, third, green principles in the design patterns and elements of Cairene houses were observed and analyzed in detail in terms of: 1) solar heat energy, 2) solar light energy, 3) wind energy, 4) construction materials, and 5) sound insulation

Creation the Batik Motif of Mojokerto Style Based on the Majapahitís Temple Reliefs as Local Wisdom

Author(s):

Guntur -- Sri Marwati -- Ranang Agung Sugihartono


Abstract
| Pages: 8-18
Mojokerto is a city where various temples as relics of the Majapahit kingdom located. Each is equipped with reliefs of the temple consist of a depiction of a character or merely as decoration. In addition for being able to arouse the aesthetic sense of beauty, temple reliefs as visual capital that can be a source of inspiration in the development of local craft in Mojokerto. Study in this area focus on the effort to create a characteristic batik motif based on temple reliefs in Mojokerto. This research was meant to solve problems related to the creation of the batik of Mojokerto style. This paper consists of three parts. First, it discusses about the temple reliefs. Second, it discusses the elements of decoration on the temple reliefs as inspired base for creation the motif of Mojokerto batik. And finally, it discusses the process of designing the Mojokerto motif.

Vegetable Tanning in Bolgatanga: Challenges and the Way Forward

Author(s):

Rolland Wemegah


Abstract
| Pages: 27-37
The research is a case study in Bolgatanga which used the qualitative design. The Researcher depended on semistructured interviews, observations and focus group discussions to extract data from leather tanners sampled from three tanning communities in the Bolgatanga municipality, namely; Yikene, Tanzui and Nawomaya all in the Upper East Region of Ghana. 60 respondents who were purposively selected from the above communities constituted the sample. The study attempted to unveil the causes of the characteristic offensive odour associated with leather from these communities. The researcher therefore studied the tanning materials, tools and methods used in processing leather from the above mentioned communities in order to uncover the source of the problem. The study revealed that even though the tanners used scientifically backed traditional methods to process their leathers, the re-using of some of the leather processing mixtures and inadequate rinsing regimes, were the main setbacks contributing to the offensive odor. Relevant recommendations were made to redress the shortcomings.

Genesis 3 and Evolution of Costume among Asarama People of Rivers State (Niger-Delta), Nigeria

Author(s):

Ucheawaji G. Josiah


Abstract
| Pages: 19-24
The inception of sin as revealed in Genesis 3 is tied to the emergence and evolution of costume: chagoroth (that is, loincloth, in Genesis 3:7) and kathnuth ‘or (garment of skin in Genesis 3:21). However, through the centuries, humans had faced the changing patterns and designs of costume. This is typical of the Asarama people of Rivers State, Niger Delta. This paper therefore examines and submits that the pre-colonial male costume consisted of Mkpopu (George) used by ‘free born’ male elders tied mainly for identification purpose. Latter additions were Ekut-ikpo (towel-like clothe) and Alo (foreign wax). The pre-colonial female costume were Asi-ebon-iiba (double waist-beads) tied around the waist without any dress on top. Others were velvet and Ikaki, Tawul-irakebon and Dembesi (English damask). The Colonial/post colonial male costume were Mkpopu though used by females also at this time, Etibor, Owokor, Atoro-onyedua (nicknamed okirika) and trousers were added. The Colonial/post colonial female costume was made up of a pair of trousers, and Atoro-onye-dua or etomelekekene- isim aided by modernism. The evolution of costume in Genesis 3 is made evident among Asarama people of Rivers State, Niger Delta

The Influence of Bauhaus School on the Education of Three- Dimensional Form (Nirmana Space) at Bandung Institute of Technology

Author(s):

Nedina Sari -- Imam Santosa


Abstract
| Pages: 38-46
The study of three-dimensional space at the Basic Course for Higher Education of Arts and Design at the Institute of Technology Bandung (ITB) has been conducted for more than 50 years. Ever since the beginning, the curriculum of this study refers to the models developed by the era of Modernism. This study program has been continued by educators who came from academic institutions with Bauhaus as their primary example. This program trains students to give a creative, clear and structural response to a three-dimensional object, material character, and three-dimensional aspects. Emphasized is the Harmonization of forms, the students should create another form that is more concrete, although without any intended meaning or function, other than its own structural form. This paper contains preliminary data is of a number of visual documents and interviews with several educators in the fields of fine art, design and crafts in Indonesia, and from the countries where Modernism and Bauhaus were born. Cultural backgrounds and geographical situations of each educator have also influenced their teaching methods. Additional Data is acquired from the Bauhaus Archive Museum. Then a temporary conclusion is presented weather this method is still in use or already changed. The applied method in the case study is a method of qualitative research that is not based on mathematical logic, the principle of numbers, or statistical methods. By studying the process as much as possible a series of 'historical' three dimentional space shape, researchers aim to provide a complete view and a bit of depth on the subject under study nirmana space. The nature of this paper is a descriptive study or a review and analysis of the socio-historical context Finally, this paper presents a timeline of the historical development of Three-Dimensional Space Study at the Basic Course for Higher Education of Arts and Design at the ITB.

Appraising the Use of Computer Technology in Garment Production Firms in Accra/Tema Metropolis

Author(s):

Joyce Adwoa Oppong -- Eunice Antiaye -- Vivian Biney-Aidoo


Abstract
| Pages: 25-33
The main objective of the study is to investigate the activities of garment production in relation to computer technology, expose garment producers to some useful computer applications and also to sensitize them to take advantage of the advancement in Computer Technology. The findings of the study revealed the plight and burden of the garment producers. Most of the garment producers had the basic equipments that are just necessary to stay in business but not sophisticated machinery that can be used to produce to meet international standards. Three major problems confronting the garment producers were (a) inability to produce on a large scale (b) inability to produce at competitive prices and (c) inability to satisfy quality standards. Garment producers found in the Accra-Tema metropolis did not have much knowledge of computer technology, but they were delighted about the information that would relieve them of their problem of speed and productivity. Although they listed some disadvantages that may be related to CAD, the advantages outweighed the disadvantages. The study makes recommendation to incorporate computer technology in the fashion curriculum to equip students with the skills ready for the world of work.

The Production and Exportation of Garments under the AGOA Initiative: Challenges Facing Garment Producers in Ghana

Author(s):

Docea A.G. Fianu -- Vivian Biney-Aidoo -- Eunice Antiaye -- Joyce Adwoa Oppong


Abstract
| Pages: 34-44
The study investigated the problems faced by garment producers in the production and exportation of garments under the AGOA initiative. The proportionate random and purposive sampling techniques were used to select 100 non-exporters and 10 exporters respectively from Accra and Tema. Data was collected using a well structured interview questionnaire and observation guide. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze the data and the results presented in frequency and percentage distributions, bar charts and cross-tabulations. The non-exporters lacked finances; market; skilled and reliable workers; information and sensitization; and had difficulty in adhering to the guidelines of the initiative. The problems faced by the exporters were cumbersome export processing procedures; customs officials’ lack of education on AGOA; high cost of production; lack of raw materials to satisfy buyer specifications; and lack of good quality packaging materials. The Chi-square one-variable method indicated a relationship between the type of training and problems encountered in the production of garments under the AGOA initiative. It is suggested that garment producers form clusters and pool their resources together to effectively deliver good quality garments on schedule.

Nkrumaism in Sculptural Archetypes of Nkrumah

Author(s):

Osuanyi Quaicoo Essel


Abstract
| Pages: 45-57
This paper explores the art-historical contexts cum political ramifications of Osagyefo Dr. Kwame Nkrumah’s preachment on his honorific sculptural archetypes produced by both foreign and local sculptors; and draw renewed attention to the iconic freestanding imperial portraits and reliefs of Nkrumah. It also attempts to explore the use of coinage and other sculptural imageries in constructing and signaling politico-cultural nationalism and identity of Nkrumah.

Rationale for the Use of Public Relation Initiatives by Teachers of Agricultural Science in Secondary Schools in Nigeria

Author(s):

FAMIWOLE Remigius O.


Abstract
| Pages: 58-64
This paper investigated the rationale for the use of public relation initiatives by teachers of agricultural science to promote their programmes to the public. It has been observed that most of the success stories about schools agricultural science programmes hardly get to the public thereby creating a wide communication gap between what the school and the teachers of agriculture are doing and the need, interest and developmental strides of the community where the schools are located. Four (4) research questions and one hypothesis were generated for the study. The sample used consisted of 60 teachers of agricultural science, who were sampled through a stratified random sampling techniques from the three senatorial distinct in the state. Three (3) sets of questionnaire containing 25 items were used for data collection. The data were analysed using frequency counts, percentages, mean, standard deviation, and t-test. The hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study revealed that the teachers of agricultural science do not publicise their programmes “success stories” to the public. They however agreed with the public relation initiatives suggested for consideration when planning agricultural science programmes to serve the public interest. There was no significant difference in the opinion of the teachers in both public and private secondary schools. Based on the finding of the study, it was recommended, among others, that all teachers of agricultural science should develop effective educational programmes and success stories that are catchy in nature for “sell out” to the public on regular basis. Parents, officials of the Ministry of Education and Agriculture and other stakeholders of the school system should be invited on regular basis to observe the school farms, agricultural science activities, during PTA meetings, inter house sport competitions, agric shows and others, so as to have a first hand information about the agricultural science success stories in each school.