Administrative Sciences

Online ISSN: 2076-3387


Publisher: MDPI
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The Bretton Woods Institutions and the Environment: Organizational Learning within the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF)


Alexandra Lindenthal -- Martin Koch

| Pages: 166201
Due to a growing public awareness, in the last 40 years environmental impacts of development projects financed and supported by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) have come into view. Since then, the member states have pressured both organizations to implement environmental concerns. We analyze the reactions of the World Bank and the IMF’s bureaucracies towards their principals’ demands. To reveal if, and to what extent, the observed reactions of both bureaucracies towards environmental integration can be assessed as organizational learning, we develop in a first step a heuristic model that allows for a distinction between different levels of learning (compliant and non-compliant, single-loop and double-loop). In a second step we describe the efforts of the bureaucracies of the World Bank (from the 1970s until today) and the IMF (from the 1990s until today) to integrate environmental protection into their activities. Due to our interest in the quality of the organizational changes, we finally analyze if and to what extent the bureaucracies’ reactions to the new external demand qualify as organizational learning. Furthermore, we discuss which factors helped or hindered organizational learning.

Applying Emotional Intelligence Skills to Leadership and Decision Making in Non-Profit Organizations


James D. Hess -- Arnold C. Bacigalupo

| Pages: 202220
Non-profit organizations and leaders may benefit from the utilization of behaviors attributed to emotional intelligence. The consideration of emotional intelligence skills becomes a strategy for the development of the non-profit organizational leader’s ability to assess the impact and consequences of decisions, while simultaneously improving the quality and effectiveness of the decision-making process. The purpose of this paper is to identify how emotional intelligence skills can be applied to enhance the leadership decision-making processes within the non-profit organization. Goleman’s (2001) and Boyatzis’ et al. (2000) four essential elements of emotional intelligence and their associated 20 behavioral competencies are utilized to develop a methodology for the practical application of emotional intelligence skills to leadership decision-making within the non-profit organization. A checklist of questions and observations is provided to assist non-profit leaders in the improvement of emotional intelligence awareness, as well as the application of emotional intelligence skills to decisions and decision-making processes.

University-State Child Welfare Training Partnerships: The Challenge of Matching Dollar Contributions


Jerry D. Marx -- Melissa Wells

| Pages: 221236
Universities are uniquely positioned to provide the very best training opportunities to public child welfare workers. However, university–child welfare agency training partnerships require a significant commitment of time and resources by university personnel at a time of extensive state cuts to public higher education. This national survey of university partnership administrators found significant differences among university respondents involving length of the contractual relationship, matching dollar requirements, and overall satisfaction with the training partnership.

International New Venture Legitimation: An Exploratory Study


Romeo V. Turcan

| Pages: 237265
There is limited theoretical understanding and empirical evidence for how international new ventures legitimate. Drawing from legitimation theory, this study fills in this gap by exploring how international new ventures legitimate and strive for survival in the face of critical events during the process of their emergence. It is a longitudinal, multiple-case study research that employs critical incident technique for data collection, analysis, and interpretation. Following theory driven sampling, five international new ventures were selected that were operating in the software sector in the UK, and had internationalized and struggled for survival during the dotcom era. Grounded in data, this study corroborates a number of legitimation strategies yielded by prior research and refutes others. It further contributes to our understanding of international new venture legitimation by suggesting new types of legitimation strategies: technology, operating, and anchoring. Studying international new ventures through theoretical lenses of legitimation is a promising area of research that would contribute to the advancement of international entrepreneurship theory.

An Institutional Perspective on Business Planning Activities for Nascent Entrepreneurs in Sweden and the US


Benson Honig -- Tomas Karlsson

| Pages: 266289
We compared nascent characteristics and behaviors leading to business planning activities in Sweden with the United States (US), examining the effects of institutional pressures exerted in the different countries. We analyzed institutional factors leading 362 Swedish and 347 US entrepreneurs to write plans during a two-year period. We show that national cultures moderate how institutional pressures influence nascent behaviors, questioning generic applications of institutional theory. We found business planning behaviors moderated by nationality, showing significant and negative effects for business classes in the US. Implications are drawn for institutional theory and the study of nascent businesses, as well as for normative business planning literature and practice of nascent businesses.

A Bourdieusian Perspective on Acculturation: Mexican Immigrants in the United States


Leonel Prieto -- Tagi Sagafi-nejad -- Balaji Janamanchi

| Pages: 290305
This article uses Bourdieu’s theory of practice (BTOP) to understand immigrants’ acculturation. It synthesizes research findings by discussing acculturation as: (1) equalization of immigrants’ and natives’ development (convergence); (2) language and social practices related to economic, cultural, social and symbolic capitals; and (3) relationships among acculturation indicators in the evolving interactions among immigrants’ habituses and their economic, cultural, social, and symbolic capitals. Hypotheses tests use micro, meso and macro-level practices. Results confirm a systemic correspondence between the habitus and different types of capital, suggesting that relationships among components of immigrants’ habituses and their capitals change as acculturation develops.