ADVERTISEMENT

International Journal of Chemical and Physical Sciences

Online ISSN: 2319-6602

Print ISSN: xxxx-xxxx



Publisher: DR.M.E.SHELKE
Search by keywords:
Article Download / Year
Article Published / Year

Studies on Acoustic Parameters of 1-(4-Hydroxy-6-Methyl Pyrimidino) -3-Methyl Thiocarbamides in 70% Dioxane-Water Mixture at 3020k and Frequency 1 Mhz

Author(s):

Pund D. A.


Abstract
| Pages: 1-6
Ultrasonic velocity and density measurements had been carried out for solution of 1-(4-hydroxy-6-methyl pyrimidino)-3-methyl thiocarbamides (HMPMT) in 70% dioxane-water at 3020K and frequency 1 MHz This data have been used to determine various acoustic/thermodynamic parameters viz. adiabatic compressibility, apparent molar compressibility, apparent molar volume, intermolecular free length, relative association and specific acoustic impedance. These properties are used to interpret weak molecular solute-solvent, solute-solute interactions in the system.

Simultaneous Detection of Insecticides and Growth Regulators by Single Chromogenic Spray Reagents

Author(s):

N.L.Chutke -- R.B.Lanjewar -- M.R.Lanjewar


Abstract
| Pages: 7-11
Insecticides are widely used in India for agriculture purpose1-2. Due to easy availability of insecticides with new trade names and mixture of different class they are knowingly or unknowingly used for homicidal and suicidal poisoning purposes. Thin layer chromatography is found to be the best option for the identification of these insecticides. Presently number of chromogenic reagents is used to identify different class of insecticides from the biological materials which is found to be tedious, laborious, time consuming and increases the analytical cost. Hence a single unique chromogenic spray reagent for detection of different commonly used insecticides like organophosphorous, carbamate, organochloro, sysnthetic pyrethroids and plant growtrh regulators by thin layer chromatoraphy technique. The present paper report if 10% of aqueous sodium hydroxide and 0.1% Bromophenol Blue in 1% silver nitrate solution in absolute alcohol at room temperature sprayed on these insecticide gives different colour spots like blue, purple, yellow, black green for different insecticides. Limit of detection of these reagents is about 10μg.

Detection of Nitrobenzene in Biological Materials by Thin Layer Chromatography

Author(s):

Chutke N. L. -- Lanjewar R.B. -- Lanjewar M.R.


Abstract
| Pages: 12-16
A thin layer chromatographic method is developed for the detection of nitrobenzene in biological material. Nitrobenzene on reduction gives aniline, a primary amine which on diazotization and coupling with β- naphthol, gives orange coloure μ spot (i.e. aniline dye). The detection limit for nitrobenzene on TLC plate in biological material is 5μg. The biological impurities such as amino acids, fats etc. present in visceral material do not interferes in the test. The methods has been successfully employed for the detection in forensic samples.

Optimization and Development of Solid Biomass Burning Cook stoves

Author(s):

Patil R. S. -- Shinde Y. H. -- Pandit A. B.


Abstract
| Pages: 1-10
In India, the rural population mostly uses biomass feedstock as a fuel for cooking and heating purposes. They conventionally use traditional three stone chulhas (cookstove) and modified Indian traditional chulhas. These chulhas not only emit pollutants like CO2, CO, particulate etc due to incomplete and inefficient combustion but also have low thermal efficiency (less than 15%). Our present work provides detailed experimental studies and heating methodologies on different designs of chulhas, which are commercially available in the market. Modifications in the existing designs were also carried out to possibly increase the thermal efficiency. We carried out experiments on two kinds of chulhas, batch (packed bed) and continuous (continuous feeding) operation mode. Effect of variations in fuel size (voidage) for packed bed combustion, secondary air’s quantity and its locations of introduction and radiation losses through fuel entry opening (continuous feeding) were studied individually. Also, a near complete energy balance for chulha has been carried out to asses the causes of heat losses and the reason for the observed reduced thermal efficiencies. It was found that increasing voidage of packed bed increases the devolatization rate and hence the combustion for which the secondary air is many a times not sufficient. This results in incomplete combustion of the volatiles due to which the thermal efficiency reduces and smoke is emitted. Allowance for the secondary air aids in combustion of volatiles and improves thermal efficiency approximately by 4 %. We found that by optimizing opening width (fuel side opening) of chulha which reduces radiation losses through fuel opening in case of continuous chulhas, results in an improvement in the thermal efficiency by around 4-2%.

Effect of Molar Ratio on Conversion of Methanol for Hydrogen Production by Steam Reforming for Fuel Cell Application

Author(s):

Bhande R.S. -- Badgujar S. M. -- Kadlag S.S.


Abstract
| Pages: 11-17
In the unsafe prospect of pollution, global warming and energy crises, all resulted owing to the fossil fuels, hydrogen production by steam reforming of methanol can be a consider clean energy carrier based on the renewable sources of energy. The paper reports experimental results concerning the effect of molar ratios on conversion of methanol for hydrogen production by steam reforming. The hydrogen produced can be utilized for application of fuel cell. The experimental study of steam reforming of ethanol was carried out using commercial nickel-alumina (Ni/Al2O3) catalyst in a fixed-bed reactor. For methanol, the minimum conversion obtained was around 40% at W/F =98 gm-cat hr/mol and the maximum conversion was around 60 % at W/F = 475 gm-cat hr/mol at atmospheric pressure. It was found that hydrogen production proportional to the molar ratio. The experimental data obtained was fitted to a power-law kinetic model and the kinetic parameters were evaluated. A considerable amount of coke formation was observed during the process.

An Experimental Study - Effect of Molar Ratios on Conversion of Ethanol to Hydrogen by Steam Reforming

Author(s):

Dr. Bhande R.S. -- Dr. Goilkar S.S.


Abstract
| Pages: 18-24
The present work reports experimental results concerning the effect of the molar ratio on conversion of ethanol for hydrogen production by steam reforming. Hydrogen fuel obtained by steam reforming of ethanol can be a strong candidate as a clean energy carrier based on the renewable sources of energy. Kinetic study of ethanol steam reforming over a commercial nickel-alumina (Ni/Al2O3) catalyst was conducted in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects W/F and various molar ratio of steam to ethanol in the feed were studied. For ethanol, the minimum conversion obtained was around 53% at W/F =98 gm-cat hr/mol) and the maximum conversion was around 89 % at W/F = 475 gm-cat hr/mol). It was found that hydrogen conversion was proportional to the H2O/EtOH molar ratio and ethanol was completely converted even at relatively low temperature values. Hydrogen selectivity up to 95% was obtained. The acquired data was fitted to a power-law kinetic model and the kinetic parameters were evaluated. A considerable amount of coke formation was observed during the process; yet, the catalyst showed a negligible loss of activity, exhibiting the feasibility of using this catalyst for ethanol steam reforming. In an attempt to reduce this coke formation, it is suggested that the process may be performed in the presence of hydrogen gas.

Significance of Temperature on Conversion of Ethanol for Hydrogen Production by Steam Reforming -an Experimental Study

Author(s):

Bhande R. S.


Abstract
| Pages: 25-31
In the present paper the reaction steam reforming of ethanol for hydrogen production, over a commercial nickel- alumina catalyst was investigated. In particular, the dependence of the conversion on reaction temperature was experimentally studied. Kinetic study of ethanol steam reforming over a commercial nickel-alumina (Ni/Al2O3) catalyst was conducted in a fixed-bed reactor. The effect of the temperature on conversion of Ethanol to hydrogen by steam reforming was studied in the range of 623 – 798 K. The significance of temperature on conversion of ethanol for hydrogen production by steam reforming and optimum temperature based on efficiency of hydrogen generation calculated on experimental data and carbon deposition during steam reforming process. For ethanol, the minimum conversion obtained was around 53% at 623 K and the maximum conversion was around 89 % at 798 K. The acquired data was fitted to a power-law kinetic model and the kinetic parameters were evaluated. A considerable amount of coke formation was observed during the process; yet, the catalyst showed a negligible loss of activity, exhibiting the feasibility of using this catalyst for ethanol steam reforming.

Consequence of Temperature on Conversion of Methanol for Hydrogen Production by Steam Reforming

Author(s):

Bhande R.S. -- Landge Y. A. -- Giri P. A.


Abstract
| Pages: 32-38
The present work reports experimental results of concerning the influence of the temperatureon conversion of Methanol for hydrogen production by steam reforming in the range of 350–525 0C. The optimum temperature for steam reforming process of methanol fixed based taking into consideration on the conversion, efficiency of hydrogen production and intensity of carbon deposition. Kinetic study of Methanol steam reforming over a commercial nickel-alumina (Ni/Al2O3) catalyst was conducted in a fixed-bed reactor. The chemical reaction mechanism of steam reforming occurring on the catalyst, support makes its chemical nature an important factor affecting conversion and selectivity. We observed that, the minimum conversion obtained was around 40% at 3500 C and the maximum conversion was around 59 % at 525 0C.The work also tested the feasibility of using methanol as feed for hydrogen production by considering the steam reforming data given in the literature and concludes that a more-elaborate scheme of reactions is necessary to describe the complex reactions that occur during the steam reforming process. A considerable amount of coke formation was observed during the process; yet, the catalyst showed a negligible loss of activity, exhibiting the feasibility of using this catalyst for methanol steam reforming.

Treatment of agrochemical/Pesticide Wastewater by Coagulation / Flocculation Process

Author(s):

Misra R. -- Shanta Satyanarayan -- Potle N.


Abstract
| Pages: 39-51
Agrochemical/Pesticide wastewater posses great pollution problems due to its high Chemical Oxygen Demand (6000-7000mg/L), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (2000- 3000mg/L), high Total Dissolved Solids (12000-13000mg/L) and highly alkaline pH in the range of 12-14. Moreover the wastewater depicts wide variation in the wastewater characteristics depending on the type of agrochemicals manufactured and on the use of raw materials utilized. Additionally the high pH and TDS also add to the environmental problems. Because of these problems, conventional treatment units which employ activated sludge process (ASP) trickling filters do not usually work properly. It was thus proposed to subject this wastewater to physicochemical treatment using different coagulants and coagulant aids. Commonly available and cost effective coagulants; alum, ferrous sulphate, polyaluminium chloride (PAC) and also a polyelectrolyte Magnafloc were studied. Results indicated that this wastewater from agrochemical/ pesticide manufacturing unit is amenable to physicochemical treatment and can be applied both as a pretreatment technology and also as a final polishing treatment. As the wastewater is highly alkaline lime treatment was not tried. Optimum dose of 300mg/L, 250mg/L and 300mg/L for alum, FeSO4 and PAC were observed respectively. Based on these optimum doses, polyelectrolyte Magnafloc in different doses was tried. Alum: Magnafloc dose of 300:0.25 mg/L were found to be the best with COD reduction of 55.76%.This article discusses in detail the results obtained in physicochemical studies.

Full Scale Treatment of Herbal Pharmaceutical Industry Wastewater

Author(s):

Vanerkar A. P. -- Shanta Satyanarayan -- Dharmadhikari D. M.


Abstract
| Pages: 52-62
Herbal pharmaceutical industries generate moderately concentrated wastewater in huge volumes in terms of COD, BOD, and SS in the range of 21960-26000 mg/L, 12200-15660 mg/L and 5460-7370 mg/L respectively. It is not feasible to treat this wastewater in a single stage to meet the stipulated standards instead a combination of suitable treatments is required. Physicochemical treatment studies were carried out using various conventional coagulants individually and in combination with six polyelectrolytes of three different charges. Among ten combinations, Alum 300 mg/L + Oxyfloc-FL-11 was found to be the best combination with respect to COD, BOD, and SS removals of 6266 mg/L (64.00%), 2867 mg/L (69.40%) and 637 mg/L (80.82%) respectively. Further this treated effluent was selected for secondary biological Activated Sludge Process (ASP) using optimal parameters like organic/ hydraulic loadings. Removals of organics in terms of absolute value of COD, BOD, and SS were found in the range with an absolute value of 896-944 mg/L, 156-174 mg/L and 66-74 mg/L respectively. Finally ASP treated effluent was subjected to tertiary Fenton’s oxidation process where the removals of COD, BOD, SS, and TOC were found to be efficient with 138 mg/L (85.19%), 20 mg/L (88.10%), 21 mg/L (70.00%), and 98 mg/L (78.22%) respectively on optimum conditions, which is well below the prescribed standards. This article discusses in details the results obtained on Primary physico-chemical, secondary biological and advanced oxidation treatment.

Treatment of Food Processing Industry Wastewater by a Coagulation / Flocculation Process

Author(s):

Vanerkar A. P. -- Sanjeev Satyanarayan -- Shanta Satyanarayan


Abstract
| Pages: 63-72
Food processing industry wastewater poses pollution problems due to its high COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand). Moreover the characteristics of wastewater depict wide variation due to the variation in the type of products manufactured and also the different fruits, vegetables and raw materials used. Many preservatives, colour, salts, oil, sugar, gelatin etc are added as per the requirement of production of various products, this adds to the pollution load. Because of these problems, the load on conventional treatment unit which employ anaerobic and aerobic reactors for the treatment generally malfunctions. It is therefore preferable to provide primary physicochemical treatment, using different coagulant and coagulants aids thus reducing the organic load on secondary biological treatment. Keeping this in view commonly available coagulants like lime, alum, ferrous sulphate and ferric chloride and few different polyelectrolytes as a coagulant aid were studied. Being acidic in nature this wastewater was treated by two stage physicochemical treatment. Results indicated that this wastewater is amenable to physicochemical treatment and can be applied either as pretreatment technology or as a final polishing treatment. Lime dose of 200mg/ L resulted in optimum COD/ BOD reductions of 53.59% and 57.19% respectively. Amount of sludge development was only 25 ml/L at this dose. Alum dosage resulted in very poor removals. This wastewater being highly protinous in nature alum combines with protein and forms dense fine flocs which do not settle easily. At the alum doses between 50 and 300mg/ L COD and BOD reductions varied between 16.81- 29.97% and 22.81-38.81% respectively. While removals incase of Ferrous Sulphate and Ferric chloride were slightly better between the dosage of 50-175mg/L. But considering the cost of these two chemicals, lime was selected for further studies using different polyelectrolytes. Lime dose of 200mg/ L was found to be optimum. This optimum dose of Lime was kept constant and different anionic, cationic and nonionic polyelectrolytes were tried. Results showed that Magnafloc E-207 was best among the selected polyelectrolytes. Results showed 0.3mg/L of Magnafloc E-207 in combination with 200mg/L of optimum dose of Lime were very effective with COD, BOD and SS reductions of 67.61%, 71.01% and 81.53% respectively. While other two polyelectrolytes depicted more or less similar results and reduction were comparatively lesser. Both nonionic (i.e. Zetag 7650) and Cationic (i.e. Oxyfloc FL-11) showed 0.4 mg/L of polyelectrolyte as optimum.This paper discusses in detail the behavior of coagulant and its combination with various polyelectrolytes.

Efficient Treatment of Slaughter House Wastewater by Anaerobic Hybrid Reactor Packed with Special Floating Media

Author(s):

Gajender C Sunder -- Shanta Satyanarayan


Abstract
| Pages: 73-81
Slaughterhouse wastewater is characterized by the presence of high concentration of slaughtered animal’s blood and high suspended solids from rumen and stomach content. Hence this wastewater depicts high pollution load in terms of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) , Suspended Solids in the range of 22000-27500 mg/l ; 10800-14600 mg/l and 1280-1500 mg/l respectively. This wastewater is categorized as high strength wastewater and needs treatment prior to its discharge.A laboratory study on a hybrid reactor of 50 liters capacity was initiated. Reactor was packed with light weight floating media. The advantage of this media is its light weight , its shape which provides 100 m2/m3 area on which the microorganism are immobilized making it more sustainable to shock loadings. Because the media is always in motion its clogging due excess biomass deposition on surface is prevented. Moreover good contact between the substrate and the microorganism is ensured because of its floating nature. Studies on different organic loadings ranging between 1.0-6.0 kg COD/m3/Day and two HRT's of one and two days were studied. Efficiency of the wastewater was very good with COD/BOD reductions in the range of 86.0 % -93.58% and 88.9 % -95.71% respectively obtained at one day HRT . The reduction was observed to increase marginally at two day HRT and organic loading rates between 1.0-6.0 kg COD/ m3/Day. It was very clear from the results that the special media provided good treatment efficiency. This article discusses in detail the efficiency of the special media at different organic and hydraulic loading rates.

Bioaccumulation Kinetics and Bioconcentration Factors for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Tissues of Rasbora Daniconius

Author(s):

Bhagade Advait -- Satyanarayan Shanta -- Deshpande Abhijit M.


Abstract
| Pages: 82-94
Bioaccumulation kinetics and bioconcentration factors (BCF) of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Naphthalene and Anthracene in tissues of fish Rasbora daniconius were studied in detail using a continuous fed system. The process of bioconcentration is summarized using a first order uptake model. The steady state BCF is calculated on the basis of exposure of fish to the PAHs for 30 days. The rate of bioaccumulation was found to be maximum of 0.331 μg g-1 wet weight for Naphthalene in intestine tissue and 3.97 μg g-1 wet weight for Anthracene in liver tissue in case of Rasbora daniconius. The regression coefficient (R2) between the PAH concentration and exposure time varied between 0.874 and 0.959, indicating high correlation. Based on actual calculated BCF values, the Octanol water partition coefficient (Kow) values were predicted. In order to prove the hydrophobic property of PAH compounds and their affinity towards lipid, the Kow is predicted. Results showed that the PAH burden differs from one tissue to another and that it is possible to correlate the same with the lipid content of the tissue and exposure time in case of either PAH.

Alumina Supported Silver Lanthana Catalyst for N2O Decomposition

Author(s):

A. Sri Hari Kumar -- V. Venkateshwarlu -- K.S. Rama Rao -- N. Lingaiah -- P. S. Sai Prasad


Abstract
| Pages: 114-122
A series of La2O3–modified Al2O3 supported Ag catalysts were synthesized with varying content of La2O3 (1-5 wt %) and Ag (1-5 wt %). Their catalytic activity was evaluated for N2O decomposition in a fixed bed reactor. The catalysts were characterized by several techniques like BET surface area, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XRD patterns revealed the crystalline nature of the catalysts and the presence of Ag0 state in reduced samples. Surface morphology studied using SEM gave information regarding the agglomeration of active component in the case of high La2O3 loaded catalysts. TPR profiles revealed valuable reduction properties of the catalysts. The combination of Ag and La2O3 showed higher catalytic performance along with long term stability during N2O decomposition. 5% Ag/1%La2O3-γ-Al2O3 catalyst yielded 100 % N2O conversion at 600 °C.

Toxicity of Heavy Metal to a Freshwater Crustacean Ceriodaphniadubia

Author(s):

Sanyogita R Verma -- Shantasatyanaranyan


Abstract
| Pages: 123-131
The main objective of this study was to evaluatethe acute toxicity of heavy metals. The acute toxicity test wasdetermined to delineate toxic levels of metals to freshwater crustacean Ceriodaphniadubia.Freshwater zooplanktonwere subjected to bioassay test in the laboratory conditions using copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) metals. Mortality was assessed at interval of 12 hour (h), 24h, 36h and 48h. Acute toxicity and median lethal concentrations (LC50) were determined by Sprague and Finney method. The 95% confidence interval was calculated as per the literature. Slope and regression (R2) values were also calculated to confirm the authenticity of the results. LC50 values for 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours were 0.090, 0.088, 0.086 and 0.084 mg/L respectively. In case of Cd, the 12, 24, 36 and 48 h LC50 was 0.06, 0.058, 0.052 and 0.044 mg/L respectively. Results show that Cd metal was found to be more toxic than Cu metal.

Removal of Nickel from Waste Water Using Graphene Nanocomposite

Author(s):

Sangit Varma -- Dhanashree Sarode -- Sagar Wakale -- B. A. Bhanvase -- M. P. Deosarkar


Abstract
| Pages: 132-139
Nickel (Ni) is frequently responsible for allergic skin reactions i.e. ‘Nickel Itch’ and also causes asthma, conjunctivitis, inflammatory reactions. Nickel salts act as emetics when swallowed. More than 30 mg of nickel may cause changes in muscle, brain, lungs, liver and kidney and can also cause cancer, tremor, paralysis and even death. Finely divided particles of nickel and nickel compounds from mining, smelting, refining, electroplating can enter the environment .Conventional methods for the removal of Ni(II) from wastewaters include chemical precipitation, chemical reduction, flocculation, filtration, evaporation, solvent extraction, biosorption, adsorption, ion-exchange, reverse osmosis, electro dialysis, membrane separation processes, etc. Adsorption is the most widely used method for removal of Ni from wastewater and is the most cost effective method for very dilute samples. Activated carbon, magnetite, fly ash, calcined phosphorous, metal oxides are the most commonly used out of which metal oxides show higher adsorption characteristics than the rest. MnO2 is widely used metal oxide owing to its high active surface area and high affinity towards metal cations. But it tends to agglomerate in the aqueous solutions reducing the active area. The graphene nanosheets (GNS) /δ- MnO2 is the nanocomposite of MnO2 loaded on graphene nanosheet which is believed to possess greater adsorption capacity than the conventional adsorbents used. In the present study the GNS/δ- MnO2 is synthesized in the laboratory and was used for the removal of nickels from the waste water. The batch experiments for nickel removal had been carried out and the parameters affecting the adsorption along with the kinetics and the results obtained from GNS/δ- MnO2 in comparison with MnO2 are also reported.

Photocatalytic Degradation of Paracetamol Using Degussa Tio2 Photocatalyst

Author(s):

Amolkumar Desale -- S. P. Kamble -- M. P. Deosarkar


Abstract
| Pages: 140-148
Huge amounts of commercial pharmaceuticals are used worldwide for medical purposes. Paracetamol (PARA) is a medication widely used to reduce fever and pain. It is also combined with other drugs in some prescription pain medications. A current environmental issue is the effects of pharmaceuticals and personal care products on human and environment is a major concern. In the present paper , detail studies on the photocatalytic degradation of paracetamol using Degussa P-25 TiO2 photocatalyst and artificial UV irradiation was investigated. The effect of various operating parameters such as catalyst loading, pH of solution, initial concentration of PARA on the photocatalytic degradation of PARA have been studied and optimized.

Adsorption of Chromium from Industrial Waste Water By Using Neem Leaves as a Low Cost Adsorbent

Author(s):

Parineeta Pandhram -- Shubhangi Nimbalkar


Abstract
| Pages: 149-158
The present work is aimed at exploring Neem Leaves as low cost adsorbent for removal of Chromium (VI) from Industrial Waste Water. Adsorption is one of the important industrial processes used for removal of color, odor, turbidity, metal ions and reduction of COD. In adsorption, the solute present in dilute concentration in liquid or gas phase is removed by contacting with suitable solid adsorbent so that the transfer of the component first takes place on the surface of solid and then into the pore of the solid. Neem Leaves carbon Adsorbent used in present study is prepared at Laboratory scale is observed to be very effective for removal of chromium from its aqueous solution. This study describes the various methods of investigation and the detailed experimental procedure to obtain the adsorption kinetics, Adsorption Equilibrium and the Effect of various parameters on batch Adsorption and Column adsorption system. It is revealed that the maximum removal efficiency is observed up to 85% for bio sorbent prepared from Neem Leaves.

Biodiesel From Microalgae A Sustainability Analysis Using Life Cycle Assessment

Author(s):

Parvatker A. G.


Abstract
| Pages: 159-169
Dwindling oil prices and limited reserves of fossil fuels have spurred widespread interest in finding renewable sources of energy. Biodiesel is one such alternative fuel which has provided an alternative to petroleum diesel. Biodiesel can be produced form oil derived from variety of biomass such as soybean, jatropha, rapeseed, sunflower etc. However, large areas of cultivations land is required to grow these plants and hence has drawn a lot of flak as the same land could otherwise be used for food crop cultivation to feed the ever growing population around the world. This study evaluates the environmental sustainability of biodiesel production process using microalgae as biomass. High oil yields with respect to the area used have attracted widespread interest in research on use of microalgae as a potential feedstock for producing biofuels. Algal biomass is obtained by cultivation of the selective species of algae, harvesting followed by extraction of oil, which is converted to biodiesel by the process of transesterification. In this study, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is carried out on the biodiesel production process from microalgae. A virtual system has been devised for the study with material and energy input streams derived from available literature on the process and the system has been evaluated for various impact parameters. A comparison at the cultivation stage between open pond culture and photobioreactors revealed that open pond has lesser environmental impact while mechanical extraction was found out to have lesser value for Global Warming Potential (GWP) than chemical extraction in the extraction stage. Harvesting stage was determined as the most energy intensive stage with 40% of the total energy consumed in the process going into this stage.

Performance Evaluation of Adsorption Potential of Fly ash for Waste Containment Applications

Author(s):

Ms. Poly Buragohain -- Dr. Sreedeep S.


Abstract
| Pages: 170-177
Anthropogenic activities due to increased urbanization and industrialization has polluted the geoenvironment and ground water resources. A healthier environment therefore warrants efficient containment system that can effectively contain harmful waste for a long duration of time. Clay liners and its contaminant retention properties are the mandatory requirements of any waste containment facilities. However, for developing countries like India, high cost of clay liners (commercial soil) results in the diminished development of such facilities. The utilization of fly ash as a low-cost adsorbent for replacing a fraction of commercial available soil would considerably reduce the cost of waste containment facilities. For this purpose, it is essential to assess the contaminant retention capacity or sorption of the soil. Therefore, batch equilibrium test was conducted to evaluate the retention capacity of flyash a waste product from a coal- fired power generating station at Farakka, West Bengal, India with Copper as the model contaminant. The equilibrium sorption characteristics have been mathematically quantified by using the two popular Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. It was observed that both the isotherms gave satisfactory fitting though the best fit was observed for langmuir isotherm. The initial concentration, played a pivotal role in the sorption mechanism and also on the removal efficiency. The study clearly demonstrates the utility of fly ash as an absorbent for copper.

Factors Affecting Filtration Characteristics in Submerged Membrane Bioreactor for Wastewater Treatment

Author(s):

Dr. V. S. Sapkal -- D. J. Garkal -- Dr. R. S. Sapkal -- P. V. Sapkal


Abstract
| Pages: 178-185
Membrane bioreactor (MBR) combines biological activated sludge process and membrane filtration. MBR has become more popular, abundant, and accepted in recent years for the treatment of many types of industrial wastewaters. MBR technology is also used in cases where demand on the quality of effluent exceeds the capability of conventional activated sludge process. A significant increase in MBR application is anticipated due to increase of water price and need for water reuse as well as more stringent regulations on the effluent quality. This paper presents MBR performance observed during the batch experiments conducted with real wastewater. The MBR is submerged membrane type with a 20 L working volume. The experiments were conducted for a short span of time of 210 min at different air flow rates at various levels of wastewater above the membrane module. The performance of wastewater treatment process has been improved from optimization of process parameters. This is due to degree of turbulence created with optimal air flow rate at optimized level of wastewater surface above membrane module. This also ensures the better performance of membrane bioreactor for longer duration, reducing the cost of operation.

Leachate Characterization and Assessment of Water Pollution near Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Site

Author(s):

Merwan Rathod -- Harshit Mishra -- Subhankar Karmakar


Abstract
| Pages: 186-199
The rapid industrialization, growing population and changing life style are the root causes for increasing rate of solid waste generation in developing countries. There are various methods adopted for solid waste management like land filling and incineration. In developing countries like India, land filling is of major concern with respect to existing circumstances. The uncontrolled dumping of solid waste on the outskirts of cities is creating serious environmental and public health problems. The improper management results in high possibility of leachate leakage with subsequent impact on soils, plants, groundwater, aquatic organism and human being. Therefore, it is important to know the characteristics of the leachate for effective management of solid waste dump site as well to control its potential impact on water quality of surrounding surface and ground water resources. Hence the present study demonstrates an attempt to investigate the relationship between the characteristics of leachate generated from municipal solid waste and its impact on surrounding ground water resources at landfill site in Turbhe area of Navi Mumbai, India. The ten physico-chemical water quality parameter of leachate, pond and groundwater sample have been analyzed for a comprehensive statistical analysis. The result shows that the ground water quality is highly deteriorating and may lead to increase in human health risk at nearby dwellings.
ADVERTISEMENT